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Portable Ladder Safety

Portable Ladder Safety. Environmental Health and Safety. Agenda. Importance of Ladder Safety An Approved Ladder Purchasing a Ladder Types of Ladders Stepladders Extension Ladders Controlling Hazards Inspecting the Ladder Set Up Use. Importance of Ladder Safety.

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Portable Ladder Safety

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  1. Portable Ladder Safety Environmental Health and Safety

  2. Agenda • Importance of Ladder Safety • An Approved Ladder • Purchasing a Ladder • Types of Ladders • Stepladders • Extension Ladders • Controlling Hazards • Inspecting the Ladder • Set Up • Use

  3. Importance of Ladder Safety • Any fall can be serious, and a fall from the height of even a low ladder can mean a painful and incapacitating injury. • The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission estimates that in one year, 65,000 individuals receive emergency room treatment because of ladder accidents. (CDC)

  4. An Approved Ladder • An approved ladder usually consists of two side rails joined by regularly spaced crosspieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, allowing for up and down movement. • Most ladders will be labeled with their duty rating. www.safteng.net

  5. An Approved Ladder continued… • Most ladders sold for household use are Type III light-duty ladders. • 3-6 feet long. • These are rated for a maximum load of 200 pounds (user plus materials). • If the ladder needs to carry more weight than this, select a Type II medium-duty ladder. • 3-12 feet long. • 225 pounds • Type I heavy-duty ladder • 3-20 feet long. • 250 pounds.

  6. An Approved Ladder continued… Requirements: • Uniform step spacing should be no more than 12 inches and parallel. • The minimum space between side rails should be no less than 11 ½ inches. • The minimum width of the side rails should be no less than 1 inch.

  7. Purchasing a ladder • Buy a ladder long enough for any use you may have for it. • Keep in mind that the length of a ladder is different from its usable length. • The height these ladders can safely reach is reduced by the angle at which the ladder must be set up. (This will be explained later). www.safteng.net

  8. Purchasing a Ladder continued… • Three types of materials most commonly used: • Wood + non-conductor of electricity when dry + the best natural insulator against heat of all materials - ages very fast • Fiberglass + non-conductor of electricity + dense material and is slower to conduct heat than metals + ages very slow - heavier than aluminum or wood models - tends to chip and crack under severe impact, or when dropped upon solid objects • Aluminum + in general are tough + age very slow + will not chip or crack when subjected to severe impact - can conduct electricity - not a good insulator against heat

  9. Purchasing a Ladder continued… • When purchasing a new ladder, there are certain defects and features that are potentially dangerous. • On metal ladders, check for sharp edges, dents and bent steps, rungs or rails. • Wooden ladders should be free of splits, cracks, chips and all but small, tight knots. No ladder should have loose rungs or steps. • Steps on wooden stepladders should be reinforced with metal rods or angle braces securely attached to the step and side rail. The bottom step of all stepladders should have metal angle braces.

  10. Purchasing a Ladder continued… • The stability of an individual stepladder can be checked by standing on the first step from the bottom and twisting the ladder. If it feels unsteady, choose another ladder. • All metal ladders should have slip-resistant rubber or plastic feet. A double edge steel prong foot is supplied on all ground ladders to prevent slippage when the ladder is in use. It is recommended that a rubber safety shoe also be used if the ladder is to be positioned on a hard surface such as concrete. • Metal stepladders should have slip-resistant steps. Some wooden stepladders also have this desirable feature.

  11. Types of LaddersStepladders • Erect a stepladder only on a flat level surface. • Before climbing a stepladder, make sure that its legs are fully extended and the spreader locked. The locking device on some ladders may present a pinching hazard, so keep fingers clear when setting up the ladder. www.ladders.com

  12. Types of LaddersStepladders continued… • Never use a step ladder as a straight ladder. • Stepladders do not exceed 20 feet. www.safteng.net

  13. Types of LaddersStepladders continued… • Do not step on the bucket shelf or attempt to climb or stand on the rear section supports. They are not designed to support the weight of a person. • Only a two way ladder is designed for two people. www.ladders.com

  14. To raise a ladder, brace the lower end against a wall and then grasp the top rung with both hands. Raise the top end and walk underneath the ladder, moving down the rungs until the ladder is vertical. Types of LaddersExtension Ladders www.ladders.com

  15. Types of LaddersExtension Ladders continued… • When using an extension ladder, raise it to the desired height, being sure the locks engage properly on both sides of the ladder. • Extension ladders do not exceed 44 feet when extended. • Extension ladders are not used fully extended. There is an overlap between sections, not less than 10% of the working length of the ladder. www.ladders.com

  16. Storage and Maintenance • Ladders should be stored in a sheltered area. • Never leave a raised ladder unattended. It could fall unexpectedly and injure someone. www.safteng.net

  17. Storage and Maintenance continued… • Straight and extension ladders should be stored horizontally on racks or hooks with support points at the top, middle, and bottom of the ladder to prevent sagging and warping.

  18. Storage and Maintenance continued… • Wooden ladders affected by exposure to heat, combined with dampness, need a dry, well-ventilated storage area. • A wooden ladder used outdoors should be shellacked, varnished or given two coats of linseed oil as a protective coating, unless it already has protective coatings. • Never paint a wooden ladder; the paint can hide defects.

  19. Storage and Maintenance continued… • Never use a damaged ladder. • Have repair work done only by a competent repair shop. • If there is major damage, discard the ladder. www.safteng.net

  20. Storage and Maintenance continued… • Do not attempt to straighten a bent metal ladder. • Periodically tighten the reinforcing rods under the steps of a stepladder, the spreader hinges and other hardware. • Metal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys shall be frequently lubricated. www.safteng.net

  21. Controlling HazardsInspecting the Ladder • All Ladders, including job made ladders, will be capable of supporting at least 4 times the maximum intended load. • Ladders shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects on a monthly basis and after any occurrence that could affect their safe use. • All ladders should also be inspected prior to use and be maintained in good working condition. • Ladders found to have defects, will immediately be marked "Do Not Use", taken out of service and replaced.

  22. Controlling Hazards Inspecting the Ladder You should inspect the following: • Check that the ladders have no nails, screws, or splinters sticking out. • Check side rails for dents or bends. • Check rivets for shear. • Check the hardware connections. • Check for excessively dented rungs. • Check that the rungs are firmly attached to side rails. • Check that the rungs have no oil or grease on them. • Check that the non-slip safety feet or bases on ladders are in good condition. • Check that the non-slip safety material on ladder rungs is in good condition. • Check that the ladder is not wobbly and that steps are not worn or broken.

  23. Controlling HazardsSet Up • Do not place it on a table or any similar platform for added height. • Ladders should be placed on dry firm ground. • Ladders should not be placed in front of doors opening towards the ladders unless the door is locked or guarded. www.safteng.net

  24. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • Ladders shall be used only on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent accidental displacement. • Ladders shall not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to prevent accidental displacement. www.safteng.net

  25. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • Ladders shall not be tied or fastened together to provide longer sections unless they are specifically designed for such use. • A metal spreader or locking device shall be provided on each stepladder to hold the front and back sections in an open position when the ladder is being used.

  26. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • Ladder components shall be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing. • Wood ladders shall not be coated with any opaque covering, except for identification or warning labels, which may be placed on one face only of a side rail. • Ladders shall be maintained free of oil, grease and other slipping hazards. • Ladders shall be used only for the purpose for which they were designed.

  27. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • Portable extension ladders shall be used at an angle where the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately one-fourth of the working length of the ladder. • (Example: If the ladder is 20 feet long, the base of the ladder should be 5 feet from the structure.) 20 ft long ladder 5 ft

  28. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • Never use a ladder in a strong wind. • The point where the ladder rests against the wall should be flat and firm. • A ladder should not be placed in front of a door that is not locked, blocked or guarded. • Before positioning the ladder, check for insect or bird nests under leaves. The top of a ladder is no place to discover a wasp nest.

  29. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • The area around the top and bottom of ladders shall be kept clear. • The top of a portable extension ladder shall be placed with the two rails supported equally. • Ladders shall not be moved, shifted or extended while occupied. www.safteng.net

  30. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • When portable ladders are used for access to an upper landing surface, the ladder side rails shall extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface; • When such an extension is not possible, because of the ladder's length, the ladder shall be secured at its top. www.safteng.net

  31. Controlling HazardsSet Up continued… • Keep metal ladders away from electrical wires. • Ladders should have nonconductive side rails if they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposed energized electrical equipment. • When using a ladder near power lines, use a wooden or fiberglass ladder since metal ladders conduct electricity. www.safteng.net

  32. Controlling HazardsUse • Face the ladder when climbing or descending and use both hands. • Mount the ladder from the center, not from the side. • Tools should be carried in the pockets, in a bag attached to a belt, or raised and lowered by rope. • Be sure that the soles of your shoes are clean and dry. Work facing the ladder, holding on with one hand. • If it is ever necessary to work with both hands, hook one leg over the rung.

  33. Controlling HazardsUse continued… • Single-rail ladders shall not be used. • Short ladders should not be spliced together to provide long sections. www.safteng.net

  34. Controlling HazardsUse continued… • A good general guide is to keep your body centered between the rails of the ladder. • Instead of leaning to the side, get down and move the ladder. • Ladders should not be used by more than one person at a time unless the ladder was designed for multiple people. www.safteng.net

  35. Controlling HazardsUse continued… • In case of sudden dizziness or a panicky feeling, bow your head, drape both arms over the rung in front of you, close your eyes, and wait until the feeling passes. • If possible, secure the ladder. One way to do this is to have someone hold the bottom of the ladder.

  36. Do not drape cords, store things or hang objects on ladder. This is a potential trip hazard and a possible electrical hazard. Controlling HazardsUse continued… www.safteng.net

  37. Controlling HazardsUse continued… Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways or scaffolds. www.safteng.net

  38. Controlling Hazards Use continued… • The top or top step shall not be used as a step. • Never overextend the body. www.safteng.net

  39. Always maintain at least three points of contact with the ladder (2 feet and 1 hand, or 2 hands and 1 foot) should be in contact with the ladder at all times. The user shall use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when progressing up or down the ladder, and shall not carry any object or load that could cause the user to lose balance and fall. Video Controlling HazardsUse continued… www.safteng.net

  40. What is wrong with this picture? www.safteng.net

  41. What is wrong with this picture? www.safteng.net

  42. What is wrong with this picture? www.safteng.net

  43. What is wrong with this picture? www.safteng.net

  44. What is wrong with this picture? www.safteng.net

  45. What is wrong with this picture? www.safteng.net

  46. Five Rules Of Ladder Safety • Select the right ladder for the job. • Inspect ladder before you use it. • Setup the ladder with care. • Climb and descend ladders cautiously. • Face ladder and hold on with both hands. • Carry tools on belt or raise and lower with hand line. • Check shoes and rungs for slippery surfaces. • Use safe practices when working on a ladder. • Always hold on with one hand and never reach too far to either side or rear to maintain balance. • Never climb higher than second step from top on a stepladder or third from the top on a straight ladder. • Never attempt to move, shift, or extend ladder while in use.

  47. Contact Information • http://www.osha.gov. Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

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