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Ladder Safety

Ladder Safety. Hazards. Ladders cause many injuries and fatalities among construction workers. About half the injuries caused by slips and falls from ladders require time off the job. Improper use of a step ladder. Regulations. Federal OSHA (29 CFR 1910.25-27) Design Inspection

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Ladder Safety

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  1. Ladder Safety

  2. Hazards • Ladders cause many injuries and fatalities among construction workers. • About half the injuries caused by slips and falls from ladders require time off the job. Improper use of a step ladder.

  3. Regulations • Federal OSHA (29 CFR 1910.25-27) • Design • Inspection • Safe Use Procedure • 1926 Subpart X - Ladders • 1926.1050 - Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this subpart • 1926.1051 - General requirements • 1926.1052 - Stairways • 1926.1053 - Ladders

  4. Ladder Ratings • Although there are many different kinds of portable ladders, they all receive a rating based on their maximum intended or working load - the total weight that they can safely support.  This includes the weight of the worker, tools, and materials.   • Type I-AA - 375 lbs. • Special duty industrial use, such as CATV, utilities, contractors, and higher capacity needs • Type I-A -300 lbs. • Extra-heavy-duty industrial use, such as utilities and contractors • Type I - 250 lbs. • Heavy-duty industrial use, such as utilities and contractors • Type II - 225 lbs. • Medium-duty work, such as painting, offices for building maintenance, and light industrial use • Type III - 200 lbs. • Light duty work, such as household use • These ratings must meet certain American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards and they must be indicated on the duty rating sticker or manufacturer's label.  • ANSI requires that every ladder be labeled with this information so users can determine if they have the correct type ladder for the task/job.

  5. Ladder Safety – Introduction • Ladders are important and essential tools that are used widely in a variety of industries.  • They help us move up and down and work at different heights. • Portable ladders, in particular, are useful tools because they can be readily moved or carried. • They are simply built and come in many sizes, shapes, and styles.

  6. Ladder Safety – Condition/Inspection • Ladders must be kept in a safe condition • Keep the area around the top and bottom of a ladder clear. • Ensure rungs, cleats, and steps are level and uniformly spaced. • All bolts and rivers are in place and secure. • Ropes are not frayed or badly worn. • Safety feet and other auxiliary equipment are not excessively worn. • Metal components are not corroded. • There are no other faulty or defective components. • Keep ladders free from slipping hazards.

  7. Tag Defective Ladders • These ladders are properly tagged “Do Not Use” and destroy.

  8. General Ladder Requirements Use ladders only for their designed purpose. -- DON’T – Tie ladders together to make longer sections, unless designed for such use. Load ladders beyond the maximum load for which they were built, nor beyond the manufacturer’s rated capacity.

  9. Securing Ladders This ladder is not on a stable surface • Secure ladders to prevent accidental movement due to workplace activity • Only use ladders on stable and level surfaces, unless secured • Do not use ladders on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet

  10. Read Warning Labels • They are there for a reason!

  11. Step Ladder use Always set level. Be sure latches are down.

  12. Proper Climbing • Use both hands to climb a ladder. • Always face the ladder when climbing, descending or working. • Avoid the top two steps of a stepladder and the top four rungs on other ladders.

  13. Do Not Lean a Stepladder • The support leg (arrow) can contact the ground causing the step leg to kick out. • Also employees should not work from the top or second step.

  14. Don’t Lean • Avoid excessive stretching or leaning. • Workers should never work with one leg on a ladder and one off. • A slip could result in serious fall.

  15. Top Step?!?!?

  16. Safe Step Ladder Use • Always face the ladder • Stay off top two steps.

  17. Unsafe Step Ladder Use • Do not straddle the top unless the ladder is designed for it. NO!

  18. What is wrong with this?

  19. Safe step ladder use • When working to the side, maintain balance.

  20. Extension Ladder Safety

  21. Set Feet Properly Firm Base Set both feet level and on the pads. Soft Base Set on the spikes and seat the ladder in the ground. NOTE: Never use spikes as a level

  22. Proper ladder set • Make sure the ladder's feet are parallel to the surface it rests against. • Don’t set ladders where they may be hit or dislodged.

  23. Set the proper angle. • The distance from the bottom of the ladder to the wall should be one-fourth of the ladder's working height. • An extended arm will be close.

  24. Ladder Access? • These are a very poor and hazardous set ups!

  25. Ladder Rail Access-secure When using a portable ladder for access to an upper landing surface, the side rails must extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface. The ladder must be substantially secured from displacement.

  26. Ladder Falls • You don't have to fall far to get hurt.  Workers injured in falls from ladders are usually less than 10 feet above the ladder's base of support. 

  27. Reason for falls • Why do people fall from ladders if they are so easy to use?Setting up on an unstable or slippery base surface is a primary reason ladders fall over.Falls involve portable ladders that move, tilt, or shift while a worker is climbing, descending, or performing a task.  Standing on the top two rungs, which explicitly has a warning label DANGER, do not do!

  28. More Reasons for Falls • Improperly getting on or off the ladder • Loss of balance • Setting up the ladder improperly • Overreaching by the user • Miss-stepping or a slipping of the foot while climbing or descending • Being bumped by a Cart or other object • Having a vehicle run into or bump you. • People not paying attention to where they're walking.

  29. Ladder Access • Many workers fall from ladders while accessing to another work area.

  30. Ladders Near Electrical Hazards • Use non-conductive ladders. • Don’t carry or move extension ladders while extended. • Get help moving ladders to maintain control.

  31. Cross bracing On this ladder the back rungs are designed for use. Don’t use cross bracing on the rear of a stepladder for climbing - unless the ladder is designed for that

  32. Damaged or Defective Ladders A competent person must inspect ladders for visible defects, like broken or missing rungs If a defective ladder is found, immediately mark it defective or tag it "Do Not Use” Withdraw defective ladders from service until repaired Missing rung

  33. What not to do!

  34. Climbing the Ladder • Climbing and descending: • Have both hands free to hold on to the ladder, or at least one hand. • Face the ladder when climbing or descending. • Keep ladders free from oil, grease, or other slippery materials. • Use at least one hand to grab the ladder when going up or down. • Do not carry any object or load that could cause you to lose balance. • Keep the area around the top and bottom of ladders clear. • Remove all items from ladder before moving it.

  35. Ladder Safety-Prevention • Make sure the ladder is not placed on ice, snow, or other slippery surface unless the ladder is prevented from accidental displacement by: • Securing it • Providing the ladder with slip-resistant feet • Protect ladders that are set–up in a location where they could be displaced by workplace activities or traffic by either: • Securing the ladder to prevent accidental displacement • Using a barricade to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder

  36. Ladder Safety-Prevention • Protect ladders that are set-up in front of doors that open towards the ladder by doing at least one of the following: • Block the door open • Lock the door • Guard the door to keep it from opening into the ladder • Make sure ladders are not placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height • Place a straight ladder so the side rails are equally supported by the top support, unless the ladder is equipped with a single support attachment • Make sure the top support of the ladder is reasonably rigid and able to support the load

  37. Is this safe?

  38. Help Yourself and Others • Before you use a ladder, check its rating to see if you have the right ladder for the job.  Be sure not to subject the ladder to a work load greater than its rated capacity.  And, always read manufacturers' labels and follow their recommendations.Do yourself a favor and avoid a fall and injury to yourself. If you see someone doing it wrong, say something!

  39. QUIZ

  40. Ladder Safety-Quiz • You have to fall more than 15 feet from a ladder before you get hurt. FALSE Portable Ladder Safety True False Workers injured in falls from ladders are usually less than 10 feet above the ladder's base of support.

  41. Portable Ladder Safety Injuries involving falls from ladders might be: A) Reaching too far out away from the ladder. B) Misstep or slip of the foot while climbing. C) Setting up the ladder on an unstable or slippery surface. D) All of the above. D – all of the above

  42. A ladder is rated according to • A) its size • B) how it is to be used • C) the total weight that it can safely support • D) the kind of material it is made of (C) the total weight that it can safely support

  43. Labels You don't need to read any of the labels on a ladder for information other than to find out the ladder's Type. True False FALSE

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