Download
how geographers look at the world n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
How Geographers look at the world PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
How Geographers look at the world

How Geographers look at the world

282 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

How Geographers look at the world

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. How Geographers look at the world Chapter 1

  2. Chapter 1, Section 1 • Globes and Maps: Projections • Determining Location: • Latitude • Longitude • Global Grid (absolute location) • Hemispheres • Reading a Map • Physical Maps • Political Maps • Thematic Maps

  3. Globes and Maps • The Earth is a 3-Dimensional sphere. We also call this a globe. • A map is 2-Dimensional. A map allows us to make sense of a 3-D globe on a 2-D piece of paper.

  4. Longitude and Latitude • We use longitude and latitude to determine location • Together they make up the grid system. A grid is a box (square) on a map. • For latitude, think “flat” lines • The Equator is a line of latitude. It is zero degrees latitude. • For longitude, think “long” lines • The Prime Meridian is a line of longitude. It is zero degrees longitude.

  5. Great Circle routes • Going from Miami to London • A straight line on a map is not the fastest route. • A straight line on a globe is the fastest route. • When you draw a straight line on a globe, it appears to bend on a map

  6. Projections: Planar Projection • When the Earth just looks like a circle • Most accurate at the center. The further out we look, the more elongated things get • Think “Plane” (a flat surface)

  7. Projections: Cylindrical Projection • When the globe is turned into a rectangle • Most accurate at the equator, and least accurate at the poles • Antarctica is not that big • Think “Cylinder”

  8. Projections: Conic Projection • Similar to a planar projection • More accurate when indicating distances and directions • Think “Cone”

  9. Other Projections WinkelTripel Projection Goode’s Projections Mercator Projection Robinson Projection

  10. Hemispheres • The Earth is divided into four hemispheres: • Northern Hemisphere • Southern Hemisphere • Eastern Hemisphere • Western Hemisphere

  11. The four hemispheres

  12. Reading a Map Compass Rose Cardinal Directions Intermediate Directions Scale Bar Key Boundary Lines Cities/Capitals

  13. Small-Scale Maps, Large-Scale Maps Small-Scale Map Large-Scale Map In a small-scale map, the Eiffel Tower looks small. In a large-scale map, the Eiffel Tower looks large

  14. Maps • There are three main types of maps: • Physical Maps: which shows Earth’s physical features (lakes, mountains, etc.) • Political Maps: which shows boundaries, cities, and states (helps with politics) • Thematic Maps: which is basically every other type of map. These maps have themes, and can help illustrate anything.

  15. Physical Map

  16. Political Map

  17. Thematic Map Qualitative Map: symbols and colors Flow-line Map: illustrate movement

  18. Chapter 1, Section 2 • Why is it important to understand geography? • Elements of Geography • Absolute Location and Relative Location • Place and Regions • Physical Systems and Human Systems (pretty much what this class is about) • Research Methods • The Bigger Picture of Geography • Geography as a Career

  19. Why is it important to understand geography?

  20. Elements of geography • Absolute Location: Exactly where something is located. • Global Address • Relative Location: Where something is compared to where something else is.

  21. Place and regions • Place: A particular space • Regions: Areas with similar characteristics • Formal Region: A region that has a common characteristic throughout • The Great Plains • Remembering: Collegiate Greeks want to throw a “Formal” in The Great Plains • Functional Region: A region that has a central place, with surroundings linked to it • Pretty much any city in the world (Metropolis and the suburbs) • Remembering: Washington, D.C. is dys”function”al • Perceptual Region: A region based on perception (ideas and feelings) • The Bible Belt • What is your “perception” of the South?

  22. Physical Systems and human Systems • Physical Geography: Earth’s physical features • What does the Earth look like here? • An ecosystem is a community of plants and animals that depend on one another for survival • Human Geography: Earth’s cultural features • What do the people do here? What do they eat? • Movement: The spread of people, goods, and ideas • Human-environment interaction: exactly what the name suggests.

  23. Research methods • Direct Observation: look around • Mapping: How do you illustrate the land on paper? You make a map. Designing and making maps = cartography • Interviewing: asking people questions about what they know. • You get dropped off in the middle of Africa. You don’t really know where you are, but there are a lot of people. What do you do? • Bizarre Foods • Analyzing Statistics: the easiest way for us to learn about another place • Rainfall, average temperature, etc. • Using Technology: Combining statistics with technology paints an even better picture • Geographic Information Systems (GIS): computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and scientists

  24. Geography: The Bigger Picture Geography has an effect on: • Past Environments: What did Florida look like 1 million years ago? • Politics: John Boehner’s opinion on global warming • Society and Culture: A society and its culture is largely based on its surroundings • Economies: How are locations chosen for economic activities?