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Made By RoboGenius

Made By RoboGenius. Made by RoboGenius. The trip to Atlanta. 7000 kilometers. 15-18 hours travel. Made by RoboGenius. Back. Søren, Morten, Jesper, Claus. Front. Nana, Mette Mie, Susanne, and Robin. RoboGenius.dk. Als. Made by RoboGenius. Choice of subject:. Golf-stream. Corals.

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Made By RoboGenius

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  1. Made By RoboGenius Made by RoboGenius

  2. The trip to Atlanta 7000 kilometers 15-18 hours travel Made by RoboGenius

  3. Back. Søren, Morten, Jesper, Claus.Front. Nana, Mette Mie, Susanne, and Robin. RoboGenius.dk Als Made by RoboGenius

  4. Choice of subject: Golf-stream Corals Diving Conditions Wavepower Made by RoboGenius

  5. Main subject: Corals Life? What do we want to know about corals? Food Chain? Human means for corals? Threats for Corals What can we do to keep corals? Propagations Made by RoboGenius

  6. What is a coral: Corals isn’t specially maneuverable. It is only in the pub stage that they are able to move over longer distances and swim. As adult they are stuck in their chalk-shelter, and are unable to move. They can spread by splitting up, but it is a slow procedure. So if they want to move over longer distances, they will have to do it while they still are in the pub stage. That explains why a coral reef consist of many different sort and kinds of corals which is several million years old. That gives an idea of how vulnerablea coral reef is. Corals are polyp-animals. It is an animal which is closely related to the sea anemones. Corals is to be found both as soft horn-corals and hard stone-corals, they both also has a skeleton of chalk. All over there is more than 6000 different sorts of corals. The most beautiful sorts of corals is the stone corals, it is also the hard stone corals that is able to make the beautiful and big colorful and coral reefs. The corals it self is very small it is only about 1-3 millimeters in diameters. Since corals is so small there are many millions of corals in just 1 colony of corals, and there are thousands of colonies in a single reef. But the corals isn’t alone about building a reef, there are many other factors in the process. The hard stone corals has the ability to enroll calcium, from the seawater and together with CO (carbon dioxide) It is able to turn it into chalk. Then they live in safety inside they cup of chalk. In a colony with thousands of these cups of chalk becomes a beautiful reef. The basis for the life of the reef is created. The tropical reef Made by RoboGenius

  7. Algae and corals: Where are corals to be found: The corals is to be found all over the world but still mostly in the warmer water, as the tropical waters, because of the higher temperature. We also have corals I Denmark; it is bobble-corals, which isn’t stone-corals. Corals covered with shiny and colorful sea anemones, carnations and death’s hand, in the middle of Kattegat – this you got go further out in the water with. But actually this unique type of nature which first was discovered for about a 20 years ago is to be found in a 40 kilometers, long belt, in the sea between Anholt, Læsø and up towards Skagen. We know for sure, that there are bobble-corals 6 places in Denmark. Near by Hirsholm, they breach the surface, but otherwise they are at 20-25 meters of depth in 4-5 meters high structures. A coral lives in a very close cooperation, with the tropical microscopic algae. The algae live in huge number, inside the soft parts, of the corals, which is helping to give the corals the amazing colors and their life. The algae lives like all other green plants of sun light which they use for propagation by converting carbon dioxide into living tissue. The algae covers the most of the corals energy needs and are into giving the corals shelter. Actually the algae are bounded by agreement because if the coral die the algae will die too and if the algae die soon after the coral will die too. Because of the algae need of sunlight the corals is to be found mostly on lower waters where there is enough light for the coral to live. The major part of corals is to be found at 20-30meters of depth. But they have been discovered down to 70meters of depth, it depends on the habitat. Made by RoboGenius

  8. The Most Known Reefs

  9. Propagation: When a coral polyp reaches a certain size it begins to shoot buds. Small polyps are formed out of the old polyp which splits into several polyps. The budding goes on through the whole of the polyps life. It is the budding that makes the colony bigger and bigger. Since the budding or the splitting is a cloning process of the old polyp it involves either semen or eggs. It is therefore independent of sex-products. This form of propagation are called asexually propagation. But stone corals are also able to propagate sexually. About two thirds of all stone corals are hermaphrodites – they are therefore both male and females and produces both eggs and semen in the same polyp. The rest of the stone corals has both male and female-polyps. Whatever they are hermaphrodites or not they are able to propagate sexually. It means that egg and semen has to get in contact with each other and that isn’t that easy when you can’t move around. A few corals are able to fertilize them self and to hatch them inside their body but the most of them has to spawn eggs and semen out in the water. And if there has to be a reasonably chance of fertilizing the corals have to synchronize their spawning. It means that they spawn at the same time – even though the corals are very far from each other. We don’t precisely know what begins the spawning but the water temperature and the length of the day and the moons movement probably has some thing to do with it. Normally corals spawn right after sunset. When egg and semen is spawned into the water, fertilizes the semen-cells those of the egg-cells which they gets in contact with. The fertilized eggs are soon after developed into the so called Panula larva. And it is able to swim. Yes, actually it is the only time in the corals life that it is able to swim or move over larger distances. It is therefore its only chance to move a few meters. The Panula larva's are swimming up towards to sea surface and then they just float with the stream. The Panula larva's swims with the streams for up to 2 month. Some only stays in the free water a couple of days. Then they seek towards the bottom and there they hatch on to the bottom to stay there. Once they are bounded to the bottom they begin to turn in to polyps. From this stage the corals isn’t able to move from the place/spot where it is now. If the conditions isn’t good the coral probably die. On second hand: If the conditions are good the corals will split and cover a lager area which makes more corals and therefore a good basis for a new coral reef. Made by RoboGenius

  10. Threats against corals Coral reefs are threatened – particularly by pollution. Dirt in the water suffocates the corals or shades the sunrays so that the corals can’t make photosynthesis. And then they die. At last only the bleached chalk skeleton remains. Boats can also destroy the coral reefs by sailing into them and make damage them by throwing anchor. • Some fishers also damage some of the corals ecological balance. For example some fishing methods like dynamite- and poison ( cyanide) fishing is widely used. • The violent fishing methods destroys the corals as a living marine ecosystem and leaves a barren underwater desert which means that they have difficult to reproduce. • Or for example when a human built something out at the coast and throw all earth and clay out in the coast water they chokes the corals. • - The many reckless tourists is with to destroy the corals when they under a diving tourfor example tread on the corals or take the corals with them home as a souvenir. The corals is to protect and not to decorate in the home. • - Yes, in the whole world the coral reefs are heavily threatened. The corals in the northern regions as well. The development in the worlds coral reefs has been going on for millions of years. But it has only taken mankind a few decades to destroy more than 25% of the worlds coral reefs. • One of the worst threats against the tropical coral reefs comes from mankind who moves out to the tropical coasts where they are a threat against the coral reefs. A serious threat against the corals is pollution from house holds and waste water from the industries as well as mining and agriculture threat the ecological balance on the coral reefs. • The high CO2 contents in the atmosphere actually endanger the corals for higher temperatures and more ultraviolet light. That means that corals bleaches and in worst case die. Because of that about 16 % of the corals died in the year 1998. Made by RoboGenius

  11. Article from Jyllands-Posten. Published 2. november 2005 Here again you see a good example of why we have to protect the corals that we have. The Greenpeace-ship Rainbow Warrior II where they were studying the consequence of the global heating when the ships keel hit the vulnerable coral reef. They destroyed about 96 square meters of the big coral reef, a few minutes after it was happened called Red Constantino from Greenpeaces department in south east Asian and informed about the accident. According to the organization was the accident caused by some old sea maps that the government on the Philippines have given them so the captain believed that they were about one and a half kilometers from the coral reef. The accident are going cost the organization about 6,857 dollars. We mean that it is a very little punishment. If you think of how long the nature is to rebuild the coral reef. Foto: AP/Jose Enrique Soriano The 55 meter long Rainbow Warrior II which hit a very vulnerable coral reef at the coast of the Philippines Greenpeace destroys coral reef By NIELS CHR. BASTHOLM The Greenpeace-ship Rainbow warrior II have destroyed a coral reef at the coast of the Philippines. The Greenpeace-ship Rainbow warrior II was in the water outside the nature park Tubbataha Reef Marine Park in order to study the consequences of the global heating when the ships keel hit the vulnerable coral reef. According to first information is about 96 square meters coral reef damaged by the 55 meters long ship. “The accident is very regrettable. A few minute after the accident did we call the marine park and informed about the accident,” says Red Constantino from the Greenpeace department in south-east Asian. Greenpeace informs that an outdated sea map given by the government on the Philippines was to blame for it, but Greenpeace still take the full responsibility. Greenpeace says that the captain thought that they was one and a half kilometers from the reef. The accident going to cost Greenpeace about 6,857 dollars. Made by RoboGenius

  12. Corals of the north In Denmark we also have corals we have the so called bubble-coral this is the only sort of corral in Denmark. That is because that they are located in the northern part of Europe , which means that it is colder than in the tropical oceans. And stone corals can only live with a water temperature above 18°C all year. That means that the stone corals get more heat and energy so they can be big and beautiful. The bubble-corals is mainly to be found along the Danish west coast, you will only have to have seen the corals to know that it is a bubble-coral. Mostly the corals are found dried on the beach and it isn’t compare able with a living bubble-coral as on the picture below. You won’t have to go further than to Faxe to find one of the oldest coral reefs in the world. Which was shaped for more than 65 million years ago. And recently there has been found a coral reef at several hundred meters depth in the ocean outside the west coast of Norway and Sweden. On depths between 50 – 400 meters lays a larger amount of small and large coral reefs along the Norwegian and Swedish coast. Some are just as big as a soccer field - Some are several kilometers long and up to 30 meters high. And all of them are very airy constructions. It isn’t near as many different species as there are at the tropical reefs. They isn’t as colorful as the tropical corals because they haven’t got the same amount of algae. But they are unique because they are so spread and live in small areas. Made by RoboGenius A danish bubble-coral

  13. Corals and their advantages Organisms in coral reefs has a big potential in development of medicinal products. Scientists have already found parts which are in HIV and cancer-treatment. There are also another advantages with corals just like with trees where you can see a lot of things about the past, by looking at the rings, can the corals also be used to find out about the weather conditions for a 1000years ago. The coral reefs are important. Not just because that they are beautiful but because they are home-place for a lot of animals and plants. Animals like: sea stars, sea urchins, crayfishes, worms and a lot of different fish species. If the coral reefs disappear then these animals also will die. You can say that the coral reefs are the rain forests of the oceans. To destroy a coral reef matches to cut down a rain forest. The amount of animal species that disappears would be the same. The corals helps to keep the water clean in it own way it makes all the life in the oceans will be able to live longer. Coral reefs protects the coasts because they make a natural physical barrier. It makes a development of a special type of forest, which are called mangrove that gives both solid fuel and a basis for food for the coast-population. The populations along the tropical coasts are hardly dependent of the tourism income that the healthy reefs can provide. Cause many tourists only come down to the tropical coasts because that the reefs are so beautiful, and they can dive in low water and se the beautiful corals. Organisms in coral reefs has a big potential in development of medicinal products. Scientists have already found parts which are in HIV and cancer-treatment. Made by RoboGenius

  14. What can we do to keep the corals in the North. (Scandinavia) In Denmark we also have corals but we can’t continue to have corals if the progress continues as it does now, we could do like they do in Norway. We could preserve the areas where we have corals; ban ships to sail near by them. Because if they keep sailing over the corals the algae will disappear and the corals can’t live without them and reverse but a little stream the algae need though, we should ban trawling because it is a huge danger for algae and all the animals and plants that lives with the corals. They take a net down to the bottom and scrape all the stones and the plant and animals on the bottom which takes it all with it and destroy all that it passes. In Norway there also has been found living coral reef at the eastside of the inlet to Oslo, further up from Rogaland and up north to Troms. There are also coral reef to find along the Swedish west coast. The normal depth-spreading are from 150 – 2000 meters. The most known corals in the inlet of Trondheim are from 39 meter depth. Made by RoboGenius

  15. There have to be done something now. In spite of a big effort from many people, the coral reefs are still disappearing with a disturbing speed and the pressure on these sensitive ecosystems is big. So it is necessary whit a massive and long-term effort that restricts the destruction of the corals. We have to take care of the treasures that exist under the surfaces of the sea. For the sake of the nature and for people all over the world. We mean personally that there shall tightened up on the rules about for rules how divers shall treat the coral reefs. Because it can’t be real that divers can swim around and mean that they owns the sea and can take a piece of coral with home as a souvenir because the corals is useful all around in the world both in the sea and on the continent. Also the rules in the other countries have to be tighten up about where they can build near the coasts. All over the World it has gone too far with the building activity’s near the coast. Rules about where it is allow to dive should also be made. Some coral reef has to be conservation area (listed). Some organizations, for example the Reef Ball Foundation, try to save the reef. They design artificial reefs where the coral can live and grow. They put these artificial reefs into corals habitats in the ocean. Make a special route to cargo ships and crafts on the sea so they won’t make to many waves in the water and in that way help the corals a little because corals can’t live without algae and reverse and algae will preferably live in nice and quiet water. But there has to be a little stream in the water. But there will be far too many waves if there are many ships sailing in the water near the corals. In Norway they have preserved a little area with corals, which has helped a lot. Cause we need our corals if we for example get a storm surge. The corals in Denmark can be a huge support if we have a storm surge since they can help to save our life. Which they can because they are able to take some of the huge power the storm surge has when it is coming towards the coast. That is why we have to protect the corals that we have. Made by RoboGenius

  16. PR-omotion Made by RoboGenius

  17. Demonstration-Movie about protection of the Danish corals. Made by RoboGenius

  18. Sources. • We had contact Esbjerg Marine museum. We talked with a sea biologist his name was Lars. He knows not a lot of the Danishes corals. He forwarded us too Copenhagen Zoo. • We talk with a unknown woman, she couldn't help us either. She forwarded us too the Øresunds aquarium. • We came in contact with Jens Peder Jeppesen, he is sea biologist. He would help us but he doesn’t knows so much. But he tried to answered some question and he sent us some information we could read. • We have looked on the Internet and found a lot of information. • We have found some books on the library about corals. • Had hear from our acquaintances • We had a lecture and an interview with a scuba diver Made by RoboGenius

  19. Conclusion. • We know that… • Corals originate from polyps, which original is a larva • You can find corals all over the world, but also in Denmark. • Corals require a lot of light. • The most beautiful corals live in outside the tropical coast • There is more than 6000 coral species • It is only hard corals which can start a new coral reef • In Denmark, you can only find ”soft” corals. A known place where they live in Denmark is out in the Kattegat sea where the grow in a 40 km wide strip. • Corals can not live without algae and algae can not live without corals. • In general we have to take better care on our corals because they protect againstmany risks, it is also the reason why we can have more fresh fish, and shellfish from the ocean • One of the biggest threat against the coral reefs are the deep going ships which can damage the reefs if they sail into them. • Fishing trawlers in particular is damaging the Danish corals reefs • It will take hundreds of years to rebuild the corals reef if they get damaged • We all have to help preserve the corals which has been build during the last thousands of years. The corals can actually help save lives. • Corals has a greater influence on life as we people think of. ? Made by RoboGenius

  20. Remember!: Youcan make a difference We can have a better environment if we take care of the sea. Youcan help saving life Made by RoboGenius

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