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Thomas Jefferson. The Revolution of 1800. What’s Wrong With This Picture??. The Election of 1800. http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/academics/syllabi/mehlerbarry/maps/nashv14.jpg. http://www.multied.com/PageMill_Images/image139.gif. Resolving the Election.
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Thomas Jefferson The Revolution of 1800
What’s Wrong With This Picture?? The Election of 1800 http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/academics/syllabi/mehlerbarry/maps/nashv14.jpg http://www.multied.com/PageMill_Images/image139.gif
Resolving the Election • The bad news, however, was that the two Democratic-Republican candidates, Jefferson and Burr, garnered the same number of electoral votes; according to the Constitution, the matter was to be resolved in the House of Representatives. (See Article II, Section 1, Clause 3.) • Thirty-six ballots were cast over five days to reach a decision. Once again Hamilton played a pivotal role, throwing his support to Jefferson, whom he disliked, rather than Burr, whom he truly hated. • This election is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800" because it marked the transition from the Federalists, the only party to have held the presidency to that point, to the Democratic-Republicans of Jefferson. It appeared that major changes were in the offing. • The dilemma posed by two candidates receiving an equal number of electoral votes was later addressed in Amendment XII. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h448.html
The ascendance to power of a faction with a different vision of power for the government. They favored a society of independent farmers, free from the workshops, industrial towns, and the city mobs of Europe. Celebrated localism and republican simplicity a federal government of sharply limited power Most public authority remaining with the states Jefferson’s Cabinet Secretary of State James Madison Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin The Revolution of 1800 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ElectoralCollege1800-Large.png
Jefferson’s InaugurationMarch 4, 1801 • Republican simplicity • Intentional effort to downplay the pomp and formality of the presidency established by Washington • Backdrop was a muddy little village that was a capital in the making • No “Coach and 6”, Jefferson walked the two blocks, took the oath from Chief Justice Marshall, read his address in a barely audible voice, and walked back to his boardinghouse for dinner
“We are all Republicans—we are all Federalists.” • “When we consider that this government is charged with the external and mutual relations only of these States, that the States themselves have principal café of our persons, our property, and our reputation, constituting the great field of human concerns, we may well doubt whether our organization is not too complicated, too expensive: whether offices and officers have not been multiplied unnecessarily and sometimes injuriously to the service they were meant to promote.” http://z.about.com/d/godc/1/0/X/1/jeffmem1.jpg
Simplicity Continued • submitted Presidential messages in writing so they did not resemble royal addresses to Parliament. • no carriage • simple dress • circle table
The Federalists Strike Back • The Legislative and Executive Branches lost to the Democratic-Republicans. • The lame-duck Federalist Congress passes the Judiciary Act of 1801 • Expanded the federal court system • Midnight judges (midnight appointments), the last minute appointments of Federalist judges to extend control of the judiciary branch artificially into the future • Chief Justice John Marshall was one of the midnight judges and the most famous.
Setting the Stage for Judicial Review • On February 3, 1802, by a 16-15 vote, the Senate voted to repeal the Judiciary Act of 1801 and eliminate the Federalist judges’ offices. The House passed the bill as well and Jefferson signed it into law. • The Supreme Court did not resist repeal of the Act. http://dss.ucsd.edu/~llrice/10-17-05forweb.ppt#320,17,Setting the Stage for Judicial Review
midnight appointment William Marbury had his commission signed by President Adams but not delivered Jefferson instructed Sec. State Madison to withhold the commission Marbury sued for a court order to deliver the commission. Chief Justice John Marshall crafted a politically astute decision Marbury deserved his commission but the court did not have the authority to deliver it. That the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that gave this power to the court was unconstitutional. Ruled in favor of Jefferson while establishing the power of judicial review for the court. Marbury v. Madison
Impeachment • feeling that the Federalists had unethically burrowed into the judicial branch, the Jeffersonians employed the tool of impeachment to remove Federalist judges. • started with NH district jusdgeJohn Pickering. He was generally understood to be insane and prone to profane and drunken harangues from the bench. • Not necessarily the “high crimes and misdemeanor” standard (strict construction) called for in the Constitution, but his impeachment and conviction sailed through the Republican Congress. • Next, was Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase, and perhaps after that, John Marshall himself
highhanded and partisan had run the trials of two Republican editors criticized the Maryland Constitution from the bench not well liked Aaron Burr, VP, ran the trial of Chase. Emphasized the standard of “high crimes and misdemeanors” Chase not convicted and removed The Trial of Samuel Chase http://roi.us/pics.h3.jpg
Dismantling Federalist Programs • But . . . Not theBUS • Jefferson appointed a very competent Secretary of the Treasury named Albert Gallatin (yes in re TN Gallatin) • Gallatin convinced Jefferson to keep the hated bank in order to carry out some of Jefferson’s goals.
used bank to pay down the debt from Hamilton’s funding and assumption plans • repealed the whiskey tax • cut back the military from 4000 to 2500 • navy reduced to 7 ships of war
repealed the Alien and Sedition Act and pardoned those convicted under the Sedition Act. all fines repaid by Congress with interest • the slave trade was prohibited in 1807, the first year possible under the Constitution.
Foreign Policy—The Barbary Pirates • despite wanting a small navy, piracy in the Mediterranean Sea led to a non-mosquito fleet mission • Tripolitan War • sent a fleet to subdue the Barbary Pirates in concert with several other nations • paid for the venture with a 2.5% tax on imports • The Philadelphia ran aground and was captured • Captain Steven Decatur led a daring raid to burn the Philadelphia. His act was celebrated as a national triumph back home. • It was not until 1815 when Decatur led another venture against the Barbary States that American interests were finally safe in the Mediterranean http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/f/f0/220px-Burning_of_the_uss_philadelphia.jpg
The Strange Episodes of Aaron Burr • Had nearly used the tie in the electoral college to become president in 1800. • Fell out of favor with the Jefferson administration. • Ran for governor of New York in 1804 while some Federalists whispered about a scheme to have New England and New York secede from the union. • He lost and blamed Hamilton for working against his campaign. • Link
The Duel • “To those who, with me, abhorring the practice of duelling, may think that I ought on no account to have added to the number of bad examples, I answer, that my relative situation, as well in public as in private, enforcing all the considerations which constitute what men of the world denominate honor, imposed on me (as I thought) a peculiar necessity not to decline the call.” Alexander Hamilton http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/images/enan_0001_0001_0_img0072.jpg http://www.law.gwu.edu/NR/rdonlyres/B513E5FF-F354-4400-B678-293ED71743C0/0/Duel18a.jpg This illustration depicts Alexander Hamilton's duel with Aaron Burr at Weehawken, N.J., on July 11, 1804. In the course of the New York gubernatorial campaign, Hamilton had made derogatory remarks about Burr, who responded with a challenge. The two men met surreptitiously, exchanged shots, and Hamilton was mortally wounded.
The Fugitive • Aaron Burr fled charges of murder in New Jersey and went to the District of Columbia to finish his term as Vice President and play a responsible and important role in the trial of Samuel Chase as president of the Senate.
The Burr Conspiracy • A mysterious plot that involved territorial governor James Wilkinson and discussions about handing the West to Spain or creating a new country. • Wilkinson thought better of it and turned Burr in. • Burr was arrested and brought to trial. • Conviction failed because of the need for two witnesses. Marshall’s appreciation of the Chase trial probably didn’t hurt Burr. • The Treason Trial of Aaron Burr http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/burr/Burr.htm
President Jefferson Reacts By 1803, New Orleans was once again owned by France. President Jefferson needed to make sure this port stayed open for American trade, so he decided to buy New Orleans from France. He sent James Monroe to Paris, France to offer $2 million to buy the land. The French leader Napoleon did NOT want to sell the port! http://www.anderson1.k12.sc.us/schools/pmps/webuser/thomasm/Move%20West/WESTWARD%20EXPANSION.ppt#264,9,Exploring the Louisiana Purchase
The Louisiana Purchase Napoleon did not want to sell New Orleans. Instead, he wanted to sell the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million! (He needed the money to fight a war against Britain.) The United States agreed, and in 1803, the Louisiana Purchase was complete. With the Louisiana Purchase, the U.S almost doubled in size, adding 828,000 square miles. Even though it sounds expensive, this was less than three cents an acre! http://www.anderson1.k12.sc.us/schools/pmps/webuser/thomasm/Move%20West/WESTWARD%20EXPANSION.ppt#264,9,Exploring the Louisiana Purchase
Exploring the Louisiana Purchase After buying Louisiana, many questions arose for President Jefferson. • Who lived there? • What was the land like? • Was there a water route to the Pacific Ocean? Meriwether Lewis (top), an army captain, was chosen to lead the expedition. William Clark (bottom), an excellent cartographer and Lewis’ friend, also shared command. President Jefferson called on Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to help him answer these questions. http://www.anderson1.k12.sc.us/schools/pmps/webuser/thomasm/Move%20West/WESTWARD%20EXPANSION.ppt#264,9,Exploring the Louisiana Purchase
The Other Explorer—Zebulon PIke Shortly before the return of Lewis and Clark to St. Louis, another expedition was sent out to explore the southwestern part of the Louisiana Purchase. This small group of pathfinders was led by Captain Zebulon Pike. Pike followed the Arkansas River into present-day Kansas. As he continued west, he described a “blue mountain”. That mountain is part of the Rocky Mountains and is today called Pike’s Peak. The expedition decided to follow the mountains south. Before they knew it, they had wandered out of Louisiana and into Spanish lands! The explorers were captured by Spanish soldiers and taken prisoner. After being set free several months later, Pike described how he had reached the Spanish lands. He also told how Spanish people needed manufactured goods. Soon, American traders were heading for these lands in hopes of economic success. Even though he got lost, the expedition of Zebulon Pike was important to American traders hoping to make a fortune trading with the Mexican people. http://www.anderson1.k12.sc.us/schools/pmps/webuser/thomasm/Move%20West/WESTWARD%20EXPANSION.ppt#264,9,Exploring the Louisiana Purchase
Comparing the Routes http://www.anderson1.k12.sc.us/schools/pmps/webuser/thomasm/Move%20West/WESTWARD%20EXPANSION.ppt#264,9,Exploring the Louisiana Purchase
Paying Off the Debt • Despite fighting the Barbary Pirates, buying the Louisiana Territory for $15 million, creating the West Point Military Academy, and engaging in the revenue killing embargo, Jefferson and Gallatin were able to reduce the national debt from over $80 million to $45 million. • Gallatin, a champion of the usefulness of the BUS, was unable to keep it in existence. The unpopular Federalist institution was allowed to expire in 1811 on the eve of war.
Madison Presidency Democratic Republican James Madison succeeded Thomas Jefferson as President in 1808. His biggest challenge was leading the US during the War of 1812. http://www.wccs.k12.in.us/cchs/staff/tarmstrong_files/US%20History%20Powerpoints/Chapter%204%20Skeleton%20Powerpoint.ppt#279,24,Madison Presidency