Election of 1800 • Adams loses, Jefferson wins over initial tie with Burr • Federalists not happy about losing power in both executive and legislative branches
Midnight Judges • Judiciary Act of 1801 • Federalist attempt to control political direction of future judicial decisions • increased # of federal judges by sixteen • John Adams • Adams filled most positions with Federalists • John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Republican reaction • Angered Jefferson and Republicans • Jefferson withheld documents not delivered by the time Adams left office • particularly William Marbury’s appointment • Jefferson argued these appointments were invalid.
Marbury vs. Madison (1803) • James Madison refused to deliver papers, Marbury took him to court • One of the Most important Supreme Court decisions of all time • Chief Justice Marshall ruled: • Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional (law which said Madison has to deliver papers)
Result • Victory for Republicans • Marbury never got appt. • Victory for Federalists • believed in affirming the principle of Judicial Review • ability of Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Jeffersonian Democracy • Until masses could be educated, political rule needed to be entrusted to agrarian aristocracy. • Jefferson's election in 1800 shifted regional power to South and West from mercantile aristocracy of Northeast • Jefferson's views: • Faith in the perfectibility of man • Insistence on strong local governments • Each generation should remake its laws to stimulate democracy
Still Major Conflicts between 2 Parties • AH still powerful influence • Convinced Federalists to back TJ over Burr in 1800 election • 1804 AH backed Burr’s opponent in race for NY Governor • AH said “Burr is a dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government.” • Burr responded by challenging Hamilton to a duel
North African Barbary States • Pirates • looting U.S. ships & demanded a bribe of protection • and in 1801, the pasha of Tripoli indirectly declared war • reluctantly set the infant navy to the shores of Tripoli • fighting continued for four years until Jefferson succeeded in extorting a treaty of peace from Tripoli in 1805 for $60,000.
Louisiana Purchase (1803) • In 1802, France stopped allowing U.S. merchants to use the city of New Orleans • James Madison sent to Paris to negotiate • France almost at war with Britain and desperately needed $. • Surprisingly offered to sell the US all 830,000,000 square miles of the Louisiana territory for the price of $15 million. • The US jumped at the offer – finalized on April 30, 1803 • Doubled the size of the country at a cost of 4 cents per acre
Two expeditions sent out to explore new land: • Lewis & Clark (1804-6) ascended Missouri to source, then crossed the Rockies to the Pacific. • Zebulon Pike (1805) explored headwaters of Mississippi and southern Rocky Mountains.
Conflict over neutral rights • British and French ships seized American cargoes and sailors • Jefferson responded with Embargo Act which prohibited all American trade with foreign ports • a) Greatly harmed American shipping • b) Jefferson became object of hate in New England
Non-intercourse Act replaced Embargo Act • a) Reopened trade with all nations except England and France • b) Provided for re-opening of trade with England and France if interference ended
Western demands for War. Reasons for western pressure • Depression in Ohio Valley • Desire for land in Canada and Florida • Future fur-trading • Region needed for expansion of settlers • Indian warfare with confederation organized by Tecumseh. Battle of Tippecanoe convinced war hawks of British assistance to Indians.