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Thomas Jefferson. Election of 1800. Adams loses, Jefferson wins over initial tie with Burr Federalists not happy about losing power in both executive and legislative branches. Midnight Judges. Judiciary Act of 1801
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Election of 1800 • Adams loses, Jefferson wins over initial tie with Burr • Federalists not happy about losing power in both executive and legislative branches
Midnight Judges • Judiciary Act of 1801 • Federalist attempt to control political direction of future judicial decisions • increased # of federal judges by sixteen • John Adams • Adams filled most positions with Federalists • John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Republican reaction • Angered Jefferson and Republicans • Jefferson withheld documents not delivered by the time Adams left office • particularly William Marbury’s appointment • Jefferson argued these appointments were invalid.
Marbury vs. Madison (1803) • James Madison refused to deliver papers, Marbury took him to court • One of the Most important Supreme Court decisions of all time • Chief Justice Marshall ruled: • Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional (law which said Madison has to deliver papers)
Result • Victory for Republicans • Marbury never got appt. • Victory for Federalists • believed in affirming the principle of Judicial Review • ability of Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Jeffersonian Democracy • Until masses could be educated, political rule needed to be entrusted to agrarian aristocracy. • Jefferson's election in 1800 shifted regional power to South and West from mercantile aristocracy of Northeast • Jefferson's views: • Faith in the perfectibility of man • Insistence on strong local governments • Each generation should remake its laws to stimulate democracy
Still Major Conflicts between 2 Parties • AH still powerful influence • Convinced Federalists to back TJ over Burr in 1800 election • 1804 AH backed Burr’s opponent in race for NY Governor • AH said “Burr is a dangerous man, and one who ought not be trusted with the reins of government.” • Burr responded by challenging Hamilton to a duel
North African Barbary States • Pirates • looting U.S. ships & demanded a bribe of protection • and in 1801, the pasha of Tripoli indirectly declared war • reluctantly set the infant navy to the shores of Tripoli • fighting continued for four years until Jefferson succeeded in extorting a treaty of peace from Tripoli in 1805 for $60,000.
Louisiana Purchase (1803) • In 1802, France stopped allowing U.S. merchants to use the city of New Orleans • James Madison sent to Paris to negotiate • France almost at war with Britain and desperately needed $. • Surprisingly offered to sell the US all 830,000,000 square miles of the Louisiana territory for the price of $15 million. • The US jumped at the offer – finalized on April 30, 1803 • Doubled the size of the country at a cost of 4 cents per acre
Two expeditions sent out to explore new land: • Lewis & Clark (1804-6) ascended Missouri to source, then crossed the Rockies to the Pacific. • Zebulon Pike (1805) explored headwaters of Mississippi and southern Rocky Mountains.
Conflict over neutral rights • British and French ships seized American cargoes and sailors • Jefferson responded with Embargo Act which prohibited all American trade with foreign ports • a) Greatly harmed American shipping • b) Jefferson became object of hate in New England
Non-intercourse Act replaced Embargo Act • a) Reopened trade with all nations except England and France • b) Provided for re-opening of trade with England and France if interference ended
Western demands for War. Reasons for western pressure • Depression in Ohio Valley • Desire for land in Canada and Florida • Future fur-trading • Region needed for expansion of settlers • Indian warfare with confederation organized by Tecumseh. Battle of Tippecanoe convinced war hawks of British assistance to Indians.