Thomas Jefferson What happens when a Democratic-Republican becomes the “Big Cheese”?
Revolution of 1800 • By 1800, Federalist power was slipping, Dem-Reps won control of Congress. • T.J. was accused of being a God-less radical (Deist) who would bring revolution to the U.S. • However, the presidency turned out to be chaotic affair. The Federalists lost. • But, Dem-Rep candidates: Jefferson/Burr tied 73 electoral votes. Who would be president/vice-president? • If a tie, the House of Representatives would decide. • 35 votes later, no results • Hamilton convinced Federalist Congressmen to vote for Jefferson over Burr (He hated Burr).
To prevent future crises, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution. Electors vote for a president and vice president on separate ballots. • 1804- Hamilton publicly criticized Burr who was running for governor of New York. Burr’s demand for an apology led to a duel in which Hamilton was shot and killed.
The Jefferson Presidency • Inaugural address: “We are all Democratic-Republicans; we are all Federalists.” • “Peaceful revolution”-restore Republican ideals of 1776 to America/Lessen the power of the central government. • He replaced Federalist officials with Dem-Reps.
Simplifying the Presidency -Walked to his own inauguration. Rode on horseback. -Took off his powdered wig/Wore old and simple clothing and slippers. -Allowed anybody to see him in the White House. -Gov’t best which governs least/Cut his own powers. -Got rid of and pardoned Alien & Sedition prisoners. -Allowed people to criticize him openly. -Reduced size of the army/expansion of navy. -Lowered expenses for government social functions. -Eliminated all internal taxes to reduce the Bank of the United State’s power. -He believed in free-trade (No gov’t intervention) w/ Europe. -Albert Gallatin: Secretary of Treasury- national debt more dangerous than foreign aggression -He cut the debt in half. -T.J. didn’t create the “radical” presidency that scared the Federalist.
Southern Dominance of Politics • First president to work in Washington, DC • Showed importance of the South in national politics (The next presidents from VA) and the declining influence of New England and the Federalists in political life. • Why? • 1)-Federalists did not want to campaign to the common people • 2)-National expansion to the west (Settlers/farmers tended to be Dem-Reps)
John Marshall and the Supreme Court • Federalists still had influence with the judicial branch. • Adams had appointed John Marshall (Federalist) as Chief Justice. • Served 30 years/Handed many impt. decisions that strengthened the judicial branch.
Some of Adams other appointments didn’t work as well. • Before leaving office, Adams pushed for the Judiciary Act of 1801 which increased the number of federal judges by 16. He then began to fill these new positions with Federalists (Packed the courts). • Called Midnight Judges (He signed on the last day of his administration). • Angered Dem-Reps and Jefferson. • Not delivered before Adams left office/Jefferson said they were invalid.
Marbury v. Madison (1803) • Led to the most important Supreme Court decision of all time. • Affirmed judicial review-the ability of the Supreme Court to declare an act of Congress as unconstitutional.
The U.S. Expands West • Westward expansion across the Appalachians, through the Cumberland Gap through Kentucky. • (1775 Daniel Boone led the clearing of a road from VA through this gap called the Wilderness Road)
The Louisiana Purchase • 1800 Napoleon persuaded Spain to return the Lousiana Territory it received from France after the French and Indian War. • Scared Americans/Forced to make an alliance with Britain. • Jefferson wanted to resolve this problem by buying New Orleans and Florida from France. • He sent James Monroe to France.
Before Monroe arrived, Napoleon had given up his dreams for an American Empire after losing Saint Doningue (Haiti). • He needed money, so Napoleon decided to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. • No time to consult their gov’t, Monroe made deal for $15 million. • Jefferson (Strict Constructionist) thought it was unconstitutional. • But he utilized the Elastic Clause. • The size of the U.S. Doubled. • Classical Republicanism/virtue/farmers
Lewis and Clark • Jefferson wanted to explore the new territory. • Lewis and Clark prepared in Philadelphia. • 1803 Corps of Discovery- St. Louis to the Pacific. • Collect scientific info. and learn more about the Native Americans. • 50 soldiers • Sacajawea-interpreter and guide. • Two years and four months and only one man died.