BSP Supports • Behavior Support planning Document • SDE BIP form • Implementation Training & Support planner (TBD)
Intervention Planning focuses on manipulating environmental factors • Antecedents/setting events = when • Specific Behavior = What • Function = Why
Intervention Planning Setting event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher sits back down and continues to play Screams “no” and hits teacher Hungry Playing with teacher, & teacher gets up to leave Function? Access adult attention Irrelevant Reduce the likelihood of the problem behavior Neutralize or minimize the effects of setting events and antecedents to prevent the need for using the problem behavior Inefficient Teach a functionally equivalent replacement behavior Ineffective Make replacement behavior access function rather than problem behavior
Competing Behavior Pathway • Good behavior support plan yield challenging behaviors: • Irrelevant changing environment • Inefficient teaching easier replacement • Ineffective altering consequences Desired Response Typical Consequence Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Replacement Behavior Irrelevant Inefficient Ineffective
Functional Equivalence • Identify an acceptable way that the child can deliver the same message. • Make sure that the new response is socially appropriate and will access the child’s desired outcome. • Teach the child a skill that honors that function of the behavior (e.g., if child wants out of activity, teach child to gesture “finished”).
Competing Behavior Equation Adult gives child another turn. Child yells, kicks, throws. Child told peer gets a turn. Adult says “one more turn, then (peer’s name)’s turn” and gives turn. Child asks for one more turn.
Discussion Activity:Competing Behavior Equation Child screams and resists. Teacher lets child out of activity. Child asked to join circle. Child gestures “all done.” Teacher lets child out of activity.
Competing Behavior Pathway Desired Behavior Work quietly Existing Consequence Grades More work Setting event None Antecedent Preferred peer Problem Behavior Talking Maintaining Consequence Gain Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper
Competing Behavior Pathway Desired Behavior Work quietly Existing Consequence Grades More work Setting event None Antecedent Preferred peer Problem Behavior Talking Maintaining Consequence Gain Peer attention Alternative Behavior Peer helper Alternative Behavior Peer helper
Building support plan from competing behavior pathway Four Steps: • Diagram hypothesis statement & competing pathway • Identify ways to reduce likelihood of challenging behavior (make irrelevant) • Teach EASIER functionally equivalent replacement (make inefficient) • Allow replacement to access function with added incentive (make ineffective) • Remove/minimize CB’s ability to access reinforcement
Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior COMPETING PATHWAYS BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING
SEs alter value of consequence We attempt to alter it back • Eliminate or minimize occurrence of a setting event • good nutrition; regular meals; good nights sleep • Neutralize effect of SE - neutralizing routines • Anxiety-humor; tired-rest/nap, unfamiliar person-build rapport • Withhold or change triggering cues or events when setting event is present • Add prompts for desired and alternative behaviors when setting events are present
Maintaining Consequences Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Setting Events Lying (Incorrect “yes” or “no” reply) Earlier “secret” behavior Question “Did you take..” Avoid Punishment Intervene here Neutralize setting event when present Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Dan: 13 years old Problem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealing Intervene here to reduce presence of setting event
Maintaining Consequences Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Setting Events Visit from Mother during past 24 hrs Physical Assault Negative Interaction Escape aversive situation Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Teddy: 7 years old, Asperger’s syndrome Problem behaviors: severe aggression (destroy property, assault another by knocking them to the floor and biting) Neutralize Routine
Antecedent Interventions Antecedents trigger behaviors By changing the form of antecedent in some way we attempt to keep behavior from being triggered.
Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies • Remove, modify or weaken cues/signals for problem behaviors • reduce or eliminate specific "triggers" • (e.g., don't say "no," say ____ ; reduce demands) • offer choices or present requests as choices • use self-scheduling or choice of sequence • embed difficult requests, use task interspersal, or task variation (e.g., behavioral momentum) • modify curriculum and instructional procedures • redesign tasks or activities/routines • add aids or supports (e.g., tool, visuals, assistive technology)
Basic Goals of Antecedent Strategies (continued) • Strengthencues for, and add prompts for, alternative and desired behaviors • find instructional prompts that work and use antecedent (proactive) prompting strategies (e.g., most to least; errorless learning) • use precorrection and reminders • change discriminative characteristics to promote desired appropriate behavior • teach in activity context; make it relevant; make it a game; utilize preferences • use priming - make materials or activities familiar • add redundant cues (e.g., picture schedules) to promote desired behavior or to ensure predictability
Maintaining Consequences Triggering Antecedents Problem Behavior Setting Events Lying (Incorrect “yes” or “no” reply) Earlier “secret” behavior Question “Did you take..” Avoid Punishment Intervene here Weaken Trigger No questions Intervene here Reduce anxiety Setting Event & Antecedent Interventions Dan: 13 years old Problem behaviors: tantrum (run through house screaming obscenities); lying; stealing
Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies Step 2: Prevent Likelihood of Challenging Behavior COMPETING PATHWAYS Spelling task tired BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Minimize: Change bedtime routine Change: Specific splng activity/words Neutralize: Provide nap before work Strengthen: add extra verbal prompt for replacement
Setting Event Strategies Antecedent Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies Competing Behavior Pathway • CBP/BSP Spelling task tired BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING Minimize: Change bedtime routine Change: Specific splng activity/words Neutralize: Provide nap before work Strengthen: add extra verbal prompt replacement
Big Ideas • Prevention includes both manipulating and/or removing triggers (antecedents) as well as counter acting setting events. • Prevention greatly decreases the likelihood the student will need to use the CB (but not completely). • Prevention DOES NOT teach the student any new ways to get his/her needs met so should never be used alone!
Writing Prevention Section of BSP • Developed from Competing Behavior Pathway • Should outline specific adult behaviors that will address outlined steps from Competing Behavior Pathway. • Neutralizing Routine • Weakening the Trigger • Prompting for desired alternate
Neutralizing Routines • If “tired” is identified as a setting event then you need to be able to identify when it is in place and how it will be administered/monitored • In Prevention Section • Adults will ask Joey if he is tired. • If Joey indicates he is, adults will offer him a choice between a 10 and 20 minute nap in the quiet area. • When the nap is over Joey will be asked if he is ready to start work or if he needs one more minute, and be reminded that if he needs the work to stop, to “ask for a break.”
Weakening the Trigger • If “Independent seat work” has been identified as the antecedent then an alternate needs to be planned for when the setting is in place. • In Prevention Section • When Joey has had a nap, adults will inform Joey at the beginning of math class that he will be working on “math magician” when the class transitions to independent seat work by saying “Today is a ‘math magician’ day, so when the other kids start working by themselves, we will get you started on the computer.”
Setting Event Strategies Predictor Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies Competing Behaviors Pathway Teaching desired alternates: Desired response Maintaining Consequences COMPETING PATHWAYS Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Setting Events Acceptable Alternative BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING
Characteristics of Desired Alternate • Functionally Equivalent • Contextually Fit • A fluent skill • More efficient • More effective
Functional Equivalence is… • When two or more behaviors serve the same “function” or purpose • Both behaviors produce the same outcome or maintaining consequence • Ideally the new behaviors should lead to a better outcome. • The new behavior needs to communicate the same thing for the student
Components of FCT • Step 2: Teaching a “functionally equivalent” acceptable alternative behavior Desired Alternative Says, “Hello.” Interacts with peers Maintaining Consequence Attention from peers Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence Tired Approached by Marge/Allison Scream / Hit head Escape Marge and Allison Acceptable Alternative Signs, “Leave.”
Contextual Fit • A skill the student is fluent in • If a student has challenges with language then language should not be the modality. • Appropriate for setting • If the setting is large group then the replacement behavior should have a component that solicits adult attention.
More Efficient and Effective • Less physical effort • Shorter duration • Better schedule, amount, & quality of reinforcement • Less delay in obtaining the reinforcer
Example • Antecedent: circle time • Problem behavior: Joe screams at circle • Function: moved from circle to library (escape circle)
Example: Planning Intervention • 2: Identify Acceptable alternative: acceptable request for leaving (sign, PECS, etc.) • 3: Teach/Plan: based on his skill Joe will be taught to point to library corner picture to ask to go there • Less effort • More immediate (shorter duration) • Greater amount of reinforcement
Example • Teach: • Away from circle, show Joe picture, model/prompt to point, go immediately to library (repeat several times) • Have criterion before moving back to circle • Ask Joe to come to circle, keep picture visible • Ignore any screams, prompt pointing to picture • Fade prompts and cues over time
Competing Behavior Pathway • Replace Challenging Behavior with a “functionally equivalent” acceptable alternative behavior Desired Alternative Stay at circle Maintaining Consequence ??????? Setting Event Antecedent Behavior Consequence ????? Circle time Scream / Hit head Escape circle Acceptable Alternative Point at library pic.
Shaping Behavior Shaping behavior is the process of changing the form of a behavior to the replacement behavior through a series of “successive approximations”. Why shape? • When the difference between the challenging behavior and replacement behavior are too great, intervention will be ineffective
Shaping Behavior When is shaping needed? • The replacement behavior is not “in repertoire” • A new skill or process needs to be learned • EG: Using cards/symbols for communication • Features of challenging behavior out weigh others • Remove a feature, while other challenging aspects are still present • EG: Building a verbal “break” request in a student with violent tantrums
Shaping Behavior Identifying successive approximations: • Identify an appropriate acceptable alternate behavior. • PECS verses a verbal response • Identify that behaviors component skills. • Attend to card • Touch/grab card • Move card to specific location • Identify which of the component skills the student can fluently perform • Joey can easily attend to the card and grab it • Joey has difficulty velcroing card to board
Shaping behavior Allow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached. Use break card in PECS 5 minute break from activity Hand Break card to staff Touch Break card
Shaping behavior Allow all approximations to access reinforcement until a criterion is reached. Respectfullysay “may I have a break” 5 minute break from activity Say “May I have a break” Say “break”
Promoting Generalization • Support variation in the response that fit with variations of the situation • Sign “more food” when hungry • Sign “more drink” when thirsty • Reinforce other communicative behaviors • A basic of FCT is getting your child hooked into communication • High efficiency communicative behavior will likely beget more communicative behavior
When writing the Teaching Section of the BSP thinkAnnual Goal and Objectives • Requirements: In a Nutshell • Description of anticipated change • Who will do • What behavior • In which (when) context (be specific) • By what date • Measured to a criterion • Goal/Objective verbage Example: • Given a 15 minute free time activity, Polly will keep her hands engaged in appropriate activities (drawing, playing with toys) or to her sides during 90% of that period for 8 of 10 days by the end of the month. • Annual goal should reflect what Bobby will be doing a year from now (remember this should reflect the stage of learning the behavior will be at) • Objectives should reflect the process of shaping Bobby’s acceptable alternate behaviors to the annual goal.
Example Objective 1: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one please?” across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Objective 2: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “skip”, “skip please”, “May I skip this activity?”, or “Can I skip this one please?”in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09. Goal: When Jamie is in class and would like to skip a specific activity, he will request to skip the activity by saying “May I skip this activity?” or “Can I skip this one please?” in a normal classroom voice across 4 or 5 consecutive trials in multiple settings, as measured by data collection, by 04/24/09.
Remember • Replacement behavior should be… • Functionally Equivalent • Contextually Fit • A fluent skill • More efficient • More effective
Big Ideas • We need to teach the student a way of communicating what they need that is appropriate for our school. • Replacement behaviors need to be more easier and more efficient than the challenging behavior • We may need to help shape the desired behavior through helping the student use a series of approximations first. • Using replacement behaviors should be IEP goal rather than a reduction of challenging behaivor.
Consequence Strategies Consequence Strategies lead to the challenging behavior becoming ineffective Through a process called “Differential Reinforcement” Differential Reinforcement: • Extinguishing (discontinuing access reinforcement) the challenging behavior • Reinforcing another behavior
Components of Responding Desired Behaviors Challening Behavior Minimize access to function & Prompting Replacement Punishment Safety Planning • Added reinforcement for basic • Controlled access to function for replacement
Setting Event Strategies Predictor Strategies Teaching Strategies Consequence Strategies Competing Behaviors Pathway Consequence Strategies: Desired response Maintaining Consequences COMPETING PATHWAYS Triggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Setting Events Acceptable Alternative BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING
Consequence Strategy • Functional Equivalence: • Acceptable Alternate needs to access the function • To start the replacement behavior needs to access the function every time it is performed (continuous reinforcement) Though the replacement needs to access the function, the access needs to be controlled.