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Development of Behavior Support Plans

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Development of Behavior Support Plans

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  1. Development of Behavior Support Plans Brad A. Dufrene, Ph.D. School Psychology Training Program Department of Psychology The University of Southern Mississippi E-mail: Brad.Dufrene@usm.edu

  2. Housekeeping notes & updates

  3. Where are you going, where have you been? • Folders from 48 students w/ ED were recently reviewed • Folder reviews focused on IEPs, FBAs, BSPs, and discipline reports

  4. Review Method: BSP BSPs were evaluated using 6 item checklist: • BSP present in student’s folder • Antecedent modifications listed & appropriate • Reinforcement plan provided & appropriate • Progress monitoring plan specified • Evidence of evaluation of integrity of implemementation • Data available documenting student response to plan * Evaluation of each item was conducted using conservative criteria and scoring item as either present or absent

  5. General Findings • Of 48 folders reviewed, 33 included students with >1 office discipline referral/behavior incident • 18 of 33 students (54.54%) with ED and >1 ODR had a current FBA and BSP in their folder

  6. Findings: BSP Review • 28.33% of items scored as present • Items that were most problematic: • Antecedent & consequent components of BSP were often not tied to FBA • Moreover, consequent components were rarely specified • No plan included a systematic plan for monitoring integrity • Rarely did plans include objective data documenting students’ response to plan • Additional notes: • For some BSPs, there were many antecedent & consequent components that were the sole responsibility of the student and/or parent • BSPs were almost always dated the same date as IEP • Rarely was there documentation as to who developed the BSP

  7. Conclusions • Tremendous amount of progress w/ regard extent to which students with ED have current FBA & BSP • Some progress noted with regard to content of FBAs and BSPs • Additional progress needs to be made with regard to content & quality of FBAs and BIPs

  8. Why do kids display problem behaviors in school settings? Learning History • years of past problem behaviors have served a functional and adaptive role Adjustment • inconsistent environments exacerbate the display of problem behaviors

  9. Why is competent behavior management important? • Spend less time managing behavior • Prevent exacerbating existing problems • Insure students’ and others’ safety • Increase students’ self-esteem • Avoid teacher burnout • Increase students’ opportunity to learn • Teach important behavioral skills!

  10. Development of Positive Behavior Supports Linking FBA data to Intervention

  11. Levels of Intervention • Level I: Differential Reinforcement • Providing reinforcement for the display of appropriate behavior • For example: Allowing the student to obtain a “break” from the situation for displaying appropriate behavior • Level II: Extinction or elimination of reinforcement • Minimizing reinforcement for the occurrence of inappropiate behavior • Level III: Response Cost • Removal of privileges and Time-out • Level IV: Reductive Strategies & Aversives • Corporal Punishment, Suspensions, Alt Placements • Typical school discipline ladder

  12. Linking FBAs to Intervention:Positive Behavioral Support Plans “a behavior change program that emphasizes teaching prosocial behaviors to replace a student’s inappropriate behaviors.” (Drasgow et al., 1999) a plan that views problem behavior as resulting from challenging social situations for which the problem behavior represents a possible solution (Yell, Katsiyannis, Bradley, & Rozalski, 2000) “not focused on controlling the person, but instead on redesigning the environment and building new skills that make the problem behavior irrelevant, inefficient, and ineffective in the environment” (Drasgow et al, 1999)

  13. Linking FBAs to Intervention:Positive Behavioral Support Plans “key component of the BIP is the use of multiple proactive strategies aimed at preventing problem behavior before it warrants sanctions.” (Drasgow & Yell, 2001) “behavioral plans that describe acts of prohibited misconduct and then specific consequences for misbehavior are almost certainly illegal because they are reactive.” (Gorn, 1999)

  14. Essential Components of the Positive Behavioral Support Plan • Operational Definitions of Target and Replacement Behaviors • Teaching Strategies for Skill Deficits • Teacher Training & Support • Progress Monitoring • Treatment Integrity

  15. Some Vocabulary • Antecedent-based intervention • Preventative & proactive • Occurs prior to student engaging in behavior • Designed to prevent the likelihood of problem behavior & increase the probability of appropriate behavior • Consequent-based intervention • Reactive • Occurs after student engages in behavior • Follows behaviors & aimed at increasing/maintaining appropriate behaviors & decreasing inappropriate behavior

  16. Keep in mind… • There’s more than one way to skin a cat… • In other words, the are multiple ways to reduce problem behaviors without resorting to punishment • Antecedent manipulations, extinction, differential reinforcement

  17. Intervention Procedures for All: Toddlers to Teens • Teaching & routinely rehearsing rules • Develop a few highly generalizable rules, ensure knowledge of rules by all parties, consistently acknowledge rule following Bx & use corrective teaching interactions for minor disruptive behaviors • This is the cornerstone of PBIS! • Differential attention • Attending to appropriate student behavior w/ positive attention

  18. Intervention Procedures for All: Toddlers to Teens • Effective instruction delivery/Precision requests • Solicit student’s attention • Deliver “DO” instruction • Praise compliance *Not used for all request, but rather for times when it is important that the student comply with the request in a short period of time • Planned ignoring • “Don’t sweat the small stuff”

  19. Interventions Based on Sound Behavioral Principles • Daily behavior report card • Home-school note • Self-monitoring • Token economies w/ & w/out response cost • *Conduct periodic preference assessments

  20. Function-Based Interventions • Behaviors maintained by: • Positive reinforcement: Access to social attention • A: Pre-correction • A: Social skills training • C: Differential attention for appropriate behavior • C: Planned ignoring • Positive reinforcement: Access to preferred tangible/activity • A: Pre-correction • C: Differential reinforcement - Token economies w/ & w/out response cost • C: Premack Principle • C: Withholding reinforcement for inappropriate behavior

  21. Function-Based Interventions • Behaviors maintained by: • Negative reinforcement: Escape from aversive tasks/situations • A: Skill building for academic/social skill deficits • A: Instructional level academic tasks • A: Choice • A: Momentum • C: Planned breaks contingent upon appropriate behavior • C: Withholding reinforcement for inappropriate behavior

  22. Function-Based Interventions Behaviors maintained by: • Negative reinforcement: Escape from social attention • A: Skill building for social skill deficits • C: Planned breaks contingent upon appropriate behavior • A/C: Relaxation training: Programming appropriate replacement responses • C: Withholding reinforcement for inappropriate behavior

  23. Monitoring Implementation of Interventions • Develop detailed treatment protocols • Operationally define target behaviors & replacement behaviors • Operationally define important steps in treatment • Include who, what, & where of treatment implementation • Direct observation • May or may not produce reactivity; but, may also provide valuable information regarding treatment implementation • Permanent product review • Sound interventions leave permanent products (i.e., remnants) • Permanent products include: progress monitoring sheets with data recording, records of preference assessments, treatment protocols, student folders, etc.

  24. Behavior Support Plan protocol for Jefferson Parish Public Schools

  25. Protocol Items • 1. Persons responsible for implementing plan • 2. Persons responsible for monitoring integrity of plan

  26. Protocol Items • 3. Hypotheses/summary statements from FBA • 4. List & define appropriate replacement BXs • 5. List & define target behaviors for reduction

  27. Protocol Items • 6. Antecedent procedures • Account for appropriate & inappropriate BXs • 7. Consequent procedures • Account for appropriate & inappropriate BXs • 8. Progress monitoring plan • 9. Plan for monitoring implementation

  28. Case Examples

  29. Demographic Information • Joe • African-American Male • 4-year-old • In classroom with 19 other students • Teacher and Teacher Assistant

  30. Indirect & Direct-Descriptive Methods • Functional Assessment Informant Record for Teachers (FAIR-T) – Preschool Version • Direct Observations

  31. FAIR-T Preschool Version • No developmental concerns • No Medications • Social Skills were WNL • Compliance: • Initial: 3 of 10 adult requests • Final: 6 of 10 adult requests • Work Completion: 100% • Work Accuracy: 90%

  32. FAIR-TPreschool Version • Primary Target Behavior • Aggression • Hitting, kicking, choking other students • Rated as unmanageable & very disruptive • Occurred 1-3 times per day

  33. FAIR-TPreschool Version • Antecedents: • Large group activities • Transition periods • Denial of student requests

  34. FAIR-TPreschool Version • Consequences: • Access to preferred activity • Removal of requests • Peer Attention • Teacher Attention* • * Rated as most frequent occurrence

  35. Direct Observations • Three 10-minute observations • Conducted during Center Time or Free Play • 10-second partial interval recording was used

  36. Direct Observations • Aggression occurred during an average of 22.78% of the intervals • Consequent Events: • Attention: 75.61% • Escape: 12.20% • Tangible: 0%

  37. Summary of Direct-Descriptive Methods • When presented with large group activities & transitions, Joe will display aggressive behavior toward peers to obtain social attention.

  38. Attention Escape Tangible Contingency Reversal reprimand for aggression removal from play area preferred toy given praise given for prosocial behavior Brief Experimental Analysis

  39. Intervention • Effective Instruction Delivery • Differential Attention for Appropriate Behavior • Time-Out for Aggression • 10 min sessions as in previous phase

  40. Demographic Information • Jerry • 15 y/o male • SPED: Serious Emotional Disturbance • Substantial deficits in reading fluency

  41. Indirect & Direct-Descriptive Methods • Functional Assessment Informant Record for Teachers (FAIR-T) • Direct observations

  42. FAIR-T • Primary target behavior: • Disruptive classroom behavior • Includes: Inappropriate vocalizations, out-of-seat, non-compliance, arguing w/ adults & other students • Rated as unmanageable & very disruptive • Occurred 1-3 times per day

  43. FAIR-T • Antecedents • Independent seat work • Language arts activities • Denial of student requests

  44. FAIR-T • Consequences • Teacher reprimand • Peer attention • Referral to office • In school suspension • Out of school suspension

  45. Direct Observations • A-B-C narrative observations • Observation 1: • Disruptive behavior (i.e., talking-out, arguing with teacher) during teacher directed instruction (i.e., language arts lecture) followed by teacher attention (i.e., arguing w/ student) • Observation 2: • Disruptive behavior during independent seatwork (i.e., talking out, out of seat, arguing with teacher & students) followed by peer attention, teacher reprimand, verbal altercation w/ teacher, referral to office

  46. Intervention • Remedial direct-instruction for reading • Effective instruction delivery • Teacher acknowledgment of appropriate behavior (in private) • Planned breaks for appropriate behavior • Daily behavior report card • Planned ignoring • Social skills training for effective conflict resolution (i.e., programming appropriate replacement behaviors) • Transitioned daily report card to self-monitoring intervention

  47. Results • Gradual improvement in reading fluency & comprehension • Moderate improvement in point earnings for daily behavior report card • Teacher reported decreased occurrence of arguments • Student reported greater satisfaction w/ school

  48. Checklist for Conducting Legally Correct and Educationally Appropriate FBAs and PBS plans • IEP team convened to conduct or appoint someone to conduct FBA. • Persons conducting FBA are qualified. • Parents are notified in time to provide input on assessment. • FBA consists of: • Interviews with relevant parties (parent, teacher, student) • Multiple direct observations in a variety of settings • Functional or Experimental Analysis, if necessary • Summaries of hypothesis statements about function of behavior • FBA conducted in a timely manner • IEP team develops an appropriate PBS plan based on FBA. • Proactive, antecedent strategies • Relevant consequent strategies, including regular discipline strategies designed to “teach” replacement behaviors