Founding the New Nation c. 33,000 B.C.- A.D.1783
I. PEOPLING THE AMERICAS I. The Land Bridge theory. • End of Ice Age diminished glaciers over North America. • Land Bridge emerged linking Asia & NA across Bering Sea. • People walked across the "bridge" before the sea level rose • The Land Bridge occurred around 35,000 years ago. II. Many peoples • Groups spread across North, Central, and South America. • Tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably: • Incas: Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. • Mayas: Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids. • Aztecs: Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples.
II. EARLIEST AMERICANS • Development of corn or maize around 5,000 B.C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that: • Didn't have to be hunter-gatherers, could settle down and be farmers. • Began to establish permanent settlements 1. No large concentration of pop. Like in SA or Mesoamerica 2. Scattered pop. allowed Europeans to defeat Native Americans easier • Corn arrived in the present day U.S. around 1,200 B.C. • Pueblo Indians • 1st American corn growers (12,00 B.C.) • They lived in adobe houses and pueblos. Pueblos like apartment complex often beneath cliffs. • Developed elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn.
II. EARLIEST AMERICANS • Mound Builders • Built huge ceremonial, burial mounds- located in the Ohio Valley. • Established large settlements after introduction of corn • Cahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000 people.
II. EARLIEST AMERICANS • Eastern Indians • Grew corn, beans, and squash in three sister farming: • Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for beans, beans grew up the stalk, squash's broad leaves kept the sun off the ground, kept the moisture in the soil. • This group likely had the best (most diverse) diet of all NA Indians and is typified by the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw (South) and Iroquois (North). • Iroquois Confederation • Hiawatha legendary leader • Closest approximation to Mex., SA nation-states • The Iroquois Confederation- group of 5 tribes in New York state. • Matrilineal- authority and possessions passed down through the female line. • Each tribe kept their independence, met occasionally to discuss matters of common interest, like war/defense. • Political/ military alliance menaced neighbors for over a century
II. Earliest Americans • Native Americans had different view of things as compared to Europeans. • Native Americans-no man owned the land, the tribe did. (Europeans- private property) • Indians- nature was mixed with many spirits. (Europeans-Christian and monotheistic) • Indians- nature was sacred. (Europeans- nature and land to be subdued and put to use). • Indians- little or no concept or interest in money. (Europeans- loved money or gold)
III. Indirect Discoverers of the New World • The 1st Europeans to come to America were the Norse (Vikings from Norway). • 1000 AD, the Vikings landed in Newfoundland (L’Anse aux Meadows) • No strong nation- state to support other voyages, settlements abandoned • Growing power of nations, governments wanted contact with world for trade or conquest • Christian Crusaders fought in Palestine regain the Holy Land from Muslims. • Mixing of East and West – European desire for Asian spices, goods
IV. Europeans Enter Africa • Marco Polo traveled to China stirred European interest. • Desire for spices, East to West (Asia to Europe)trade flourished-had to be overland, initiated new exploration down around Africa in hopes of an easier (all water) route. • Portuguese wanted a better way to get to the Spice Islands, eventually rounding Africa's southern Cape of Good Hope. • New developments: Caravel, compass, astrolabe- allowed sea travel to be safer more reliable • Opened sub- Saharan Africa to European exploration, exploitation VI. Slave trade begins • 1st slave trade across Sahara Desert. • Later, along West African coast. Slave traders purposely busted up tribes, families in order prevent resistance. • Slaves wound up on sugar plantations the Portuguese had set up on the tropical islands off Africa's coast. • Spain watched Portugal's success with exploration and slaving and wanted a piece of the pie.
V. Columbus Comes upon a New World • Convinced King and Queen of Spain to finance expedition to bypass Africa route to Asia • 1492 “discovers” America • Voyage eventually leads to beginnings of interdependent global system • Europe would provide the market, capital, technology. • Africa would provide the labor. • The New World would provide the raw materials (gold, soil, lumber).
V. Columbus Comes upon a New World I. Causes biological flip-flop of Old and New Worlds. • traded plants, foods, animals, germs II. Columbian Exchange: • From the New World (America) to the Old • corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc. also, syphilis • From the Old World to the New • cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc. • devastating diseases (smallpox, yellow fever, malaria), as Indians had no immunities. • The Indians had no immunities in their systems built up over generations. • An estimated 90% of all pre-Columbus Indians died, mostly due to disease.
VII. The Spanish Conquistadores • Spain secured claim to Americas from Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) • 1500’s dominant explorers/ colonizers of Americas • Conquistadores explored and conquered much of N and S America • Vasco Balboa: "discovered“ the Pacific Ocean across isthmus of Panama • Ferdinand Magellan: circumnavigates the globe (1st to do so) • Ponce de Leon: touches and names Florida looking for legendary Fountain of Youth • Hernando Cortes: enters Florida, travels up into present day Southeastern U.S., dies and is "buried“ in Mississippi River • Francisco Pizarro: conquers Incan Empire of Peruand begins shipping tons of gold/silver back to Spain. This huge influxof precious metals made European prices skyrocket (inflation). • Francisco Coronado: ventured into current Southwest U.S. looking for legendary El Dorado, city of gold. He found the Pueblo Indians.
VII. The Spanish Conquistadores I. Flood of silver from SA, Mexico caused inflation in Europe A. Led to rise of capitalism and commercial banking, paid for international trade II. Encomienda system established A. Indians "commended“ or given to Spanish landlords B. The idea was that Indians would work and beconverted to Christianity, but it was basically just slavery on a sugar plantation guised as missionary work.
VIII. The Conquest of Mexico • Hernando Cortez conquered the Aztecs at Tenochtitlan. • Cortez went from Cuba to present day Vera Cruz, then marched over mountains to the Aztec capital. • Montezuma, Aztec king, thought Cortez might be thegod Quetzalcoatl who was due to re-appear • Montezuma welcomed Cortez into Tenochtitlan. • The Spanish lust for gold led Montezuma to attack on the noche triste, sad night. Cortez and men fought their way out, but it wassmallpox that eventually beat the Indians. • The Spanish then destroyed Tenochtitlan, building the Spanish capital (Mexico City) exactly on top of the Aztec city. • A new race of people emerged, mestizos, a mix of Spanish and Indian blood.
IX. The Spread of Spanish America • Spain’s empire grew quickly • Threats from other European powers- English, French • Spanish set up forts (presidios) to protect borders- from Florida to California • Rebellions in New Mexico against Spanish (Pope’s Rebellion 1680) • Black Legend: The Black Legend was the notion that Spaniards only brought bad things (murder, disease, slavery); though true, they also brought good things such as law systems, architecture, Christianity, language, civilization, so that the Black Legend is partly, but not entirely, accurate.
Planting of the English in America 1500-1733
II. ELIZABETH ENERGIZES ENGLAND Within 100 years of Columbus landing Americas radically transformed • 1600 most of North America unclaimed, unexplored • In the 1500s, Britain failed to effectively colonize due to internal conflicts. • 1530’s King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church launched the English Protestant Reformation. • Elizabeth I became queen, Britain became basically Protestant, rivalry with Catholic Spain intensified. • Ireland, Catholics sought Spain’s help in revolting against England, English crushed the uprising with brutal atrocity, developed contempt for natives. • Late 1500’s English attack Spanish ships for gold (Sir Francis Drake) • First English attempts at colonization (Newfoundland 1583, Roanoke 1585) failed • 1588 English defeat Spanish Armada • Allows English to cross North Atlantic • Victory gives English reason for exploration/settlement • Strong government/popular monarch, more religious unity, a sense of nationalism • Beginning of British dominance at sea (which lasts until U.S. tops them, around 1900)
III. England on the Eve of the Empire • Reasons for English colonization of the Americas • 1500’s growing population • New enclosure laws – less land for poor • Wool industry collapsed • Population became mobile (looking for jobs) • Tradition of primogeniture = 1st born son inheritsALL father’s land. Younger sons tried their luck with fortunes elsewhere, like America. • Early1600s, joint-stock company perfected (investors put money into the company with hopes for a good return), provided financing for colonization • Joint-stock companies usually did not exist long, stockholders invested to make a profit, then quickly sell for profit a few years later • Charter gave settlers same rights as Englishmen • Joint Stock Company (Virginia Company) given charter by King James I to settle in New World
IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling • On May 24, 1607, about 100 English settlers disembarked from their ship and founded Jamestown. • Problems included: (a) the swampy site of Jamestown, poor drinking water, mosquitoes caused malaria and yellow fever. (b) men wasted time looking for gold rather than doing useful tasks (digging wells, building shelter, planting crops), (c) zero women on the initial ship.
IV. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling • 1608 Captain John Smith took over control and whipped the colonists into shape, gave order and discipline, highlighted by his “no work, no food” policy. • Colonists had to eat cats, dogs, rats, even other people. One fellow wrote of eating “powdered wife.” • 1610 a relief party headed by Lord De La Warr arrived to alleviate the suffering. • 1625 out of an original overall total of 8,000 would-be settlers, only 1,200 had survived.
V. Culture Clash in the New World • At first English seen potential allies, relations grew worse when English began to raid Indian food supplies • De La Warr began “total war” against Indians • Early 1600’s clashes decimated Indians pushed them westward, removed them from ancestral lands • European colonization disrupted way of life • Disease took out population • Trade intensified competition among tribes • Tribes along Atlantic seaboard felt effects the most • When colonists could grow their own food they had little use for Indians, Europeans wanted their land
VII. Virginia Child of Tobacco • Tobacco savior of Virginia Colony • cash crop- Jamestown had found its gold. • Tobacco created a greed for land- heavily depleted the soil and ruined the land. • Representative self-government in Virginia, when in 1619, settlers created the House of Burgesses, a committee to work out local issues. This set America on a pathway to self-rule • 1619 first Africans sold as slaves
VIII. Maryland: Catholic Haven • 1634 founded by Lord Baltimore as Catholic refuge (from Protestant English) • Second plantation colony • Huge estates given to Catholic families, poorer, Protestants settled there also, created friction between two groups • Tobacco main crop, labor source was indentured servants (slaves came in late 1600’s) • Religious toleration • Permitted freedom of worship to all Christians • 1649- Act of Toleration, guaranteed religious toleration to all Christians, but decreed the death penalty to Jews, atheists, others who didn’t believe in the divinity of Jesus • More Catholics in Maryland than any English speaking colony in the New World
IX. The West Indies Way Station to Mainland America • Decline of Spanish power led British to secure Caribbean Islands • Sugar main crop • Labor intensive, capital intensive • Needed to be wealthy to start plantation • Caused large numbers of slaves to be imported • Slave Codes established • 1700 slaves outnumber settlers 4:1 • defined the legal status of slaves and the rights of the masters. They were typically strict and exacted severe punishments for offenders. • Sugar plantation system caused islands to depend on American colonies for food, basic supplies • Smaller farmers left islands and settled in southern colonies • 1670 group arrives in Carolina, brings slaves from Barbados • Slave codes adopted in Carolina 1696 • Slave codes became model for statutes governing slavery across colonies
X. Colonizing the Carolinas • Developed close economic ties with “sugar islands” • Many immigrated from region , brought slave trade with them • Traded Indian slaves throughout colonies • Rice major export crop • African slaves had knowledge to grow rice • Slaves had natural immunity to malaria • Ideal laborers for rice plantations • By 1710 majority of people in Carolinas were African slaves • Charles Town major seaport • Diverse tolerant community • Attracted French Protestant refugees • Caused friction with Spain
XI. Emergence of North Carolina • Wild northern expanse of Carolina • Outcasts and religious dissenters • Raised tobacco and other crops on small farms, little need for slaves • Distinctive traits: irreligious, hospitable to pirates, spirit of resistance to authority, , democratic, independent minded, least aristocratic of 13 colonies • 1712 separated from S.C.
XI. Late Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony • 1733-Last colony to be “planted” • Savannah major port • Established as buffer between English, Spanish • Only colony to receive money from English government • Founded by prison reform group, major leader James Oglethorpe • Debtors from England sent there • Diverse communities • Religious toleration for all except Catholics • Least populous colony • Restrictive slavery laws
Plantation Colonies • Agriculture export based economies • Slavery in all colonies • Small group owned most of the land • Rural population made it hard to establish towns, schools and churches • Religiously tolerant • Agriculture spurred expansion and confrontation with Native Americans
Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700
Overview • Established different patterns of settlement than plantation/southern colonies • Different economies than plantation/southern colonies • Different set of values than plantation/southern colonies • Distinctive regional characteristics began to develop during this time
I. Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism • Social unrest and rise of Calvinism led to attraction to Puritanism • Many from economically depressed areas, Puritanism provided comfort • King James I harassed Puritan separatists, went to Holland
II. Puritans End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth • Looked for haven where they could be free to worship and live • 1620- Negotiated with Virginia Company, missed destination landed in New England • Leader Myles Standish • Signed Mayflower Compact- set up crude government, submit to the will of the majority, first step toward self government • Male settlers met in open discussion town meetings
II. Puritans End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth • First winter took heavy toll (44 of 102 survived), nobody left colony • Next year bountiful harvests, Pilgrims saw some sign of success • Found economic success in fish, fur, lumber • William Bradford early leader • Colony never important politically or economically • Significant for moral and spiritual qualities, established pattern in New England • 1691- Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony
III. Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth • Separatist Puritans wanted “purified” form of Christianity, not welcome in England, still members of Church of England • 1629 more moderate group secured royal charter, formed Mass. Bay Company • Used charter as a form of constitution, had advantage of being out of the reach of royal authority • Well equipped group settles 1630, larger scale than previous settlements • Continuing turmoil in England (Great Migration), more people left (70,000) only about 20,000 came Mass. Many others went to Caribbean • John Winthrop gov. of Bay colony for 19 years (came because “called by God”) • Important industries fishing, shipbuilding • Became biggest, most influential colony in New England
III. Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth • Benefitted from shared sense of purpose, idea of “covenant” with God • “We shall be a city upon a hill” • Believed they had a covenant with God, society a model to humanity
IV. Building the Bay Colony • Common convictions shaped life • All free adult males, that were members of Puritan Congregations (Congregational Church) had right to vote, participate in political life • Three-fifths of adult males enjoyed privileges • Town governments were more inclusive, all male property holders could participate, all business decided by majority vote • Was not a democracy • All people paid taxes • “Freemen” voted for governor and representative assembly (General Court) • Religious leaders had enormous influence, govt. duty to enforce religious rules • Congregations had right to hire, fire ministers • Clergy could not hold political office • Limited endorsement of separation of church and state • Protestant ethic emerges- serious commitment to work, worldly pursuits • For Puritans hellfire was very real
V. Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth • Challenge to Puritan orthodoxy from Anne Hutchinson, holy life no sure way to salvation, why bother with following God’s laws (antinomianism) • 1638- Banished from colony • Roger Williams radical separatist, wanted clean break from English church • Challenged legality of Bay Colony charter, taking land from Indians • Did not want civil government to regulate religion • 1635- Banished from colony • Williams established religious tolerance in Rhode Island • Most liberal of all colonies • Opposed special privilege, provided freedom of opportunity • Settlements consisted of exiles and malcontents from Bay Colony • Strongly Independent colony
VII. New England Spreads Out • 1635 Connecticut River Valley settled, largest area of fertile land in New England • 1639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut- like a modern constitution, democratic regime controlled by “substantial” citizens • Established unified government in CT • First written constitution ion America • 1662- More religious colony, New Haven merged with Connecticut colony • 1677 Maine- absorbed by Mass. • 1679 New Hampshire became a royal colony • New England colonies began westward expansion during this period
VIII. Puritans vs. Indians • Spread of English led to conflict with Indians • Epidemics left them with no position to resist English • 1637Pequot War – English destroy Pequot (in CT) led to forty years of uneasy peace • English tried to convert natives, put them in praying towns (early reservations?) • Only hope for resistance was in unity • 1675King Phillip (Metacom) led series of attacks on English • 1676King Phillips War ended, slowed westward advance of English settlement, ended Indian resistance in New England
IX. Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence • 1643New England Confederation (two Mass. And two CT colonies) • Purpose: defense, intercolonial problems • England did not provide support b/c of Civil Wars, let colonies become semiautonomous (salutary neglect) • Each colony had two votes • Exclusive Puritan club • Milestone toward colonial unity • 1660 Royalists restored (Stuart Restoration) in England, Charles II takes more active role • 1662-Gives Connecticut a sea to sea grant, legitimized squatter settlements • 1663 Rhode Island receives new charter • 1684 Bay colony charter revoked
X. Andros Promotes First American Revolution • 1686 Dominion of New England established • Created by royal authority, controlled from London • Promoted English Navigation Laws, control trade within English colonies to benefit England, despised by colonists • Colonies existed to benefit mother country • Policy known as mercantilism, basically political control of the economy by the state • 1651-1696 British pass series of Navigation Acts that spell out goods to be sold, and put the British government in charge of trade • Unintended consequence smuggling became popular • Sir Edmund Andros head of Dominion • Restrictions on courts, press, mail, town meetings, schools; revoked land titles • Tax colonies without consent, enforced Navigation Laws
X. Andros Promotes First American Revolution • Glorious Revolution ended Dominion • 1691 Mass. Made a royal colony • Royal gov. appointed • ALL qualified males could vote • 1681-1691 colonists resist royal authority • Monarchs relax control of colonial trade, begin period of salutary neglect again • Residue: more English officials in America, prevented rise of local leaders, resentment toward England
XI. Old Netherlanders at New Netherland • 17th century Dutch emerged as major commercial, naval power • Challenged England • Leading colonial power • 1609 Henry Hudson filed Dutch claim to New York area • 1623-1624New Netherland planted (Dutch West India Company) • New Amsterdam established for fur trade, quick profit for stockholders, not democratic • cosmopolitan population, landed aristocracy • Land granted for people who would settle 50 people on them (patroons)
XII. Friction With English and Swedish Neighbors • Dutch directors incompetent • Shareholders wanted profit • Indians attacked New Amsterdam (Dutch erected wall for defense, later became Wall Street) • New England hostile to growth, wanted to attack Dutch, stopped by Mass. veto • Sweden planted colonies on Delaware R. • Dutch attacked Swedes, absorbed into Dutch colony
XII. Dutch Residues in New York • Regarded by English as intruders, attacked by English navy and surrendered • Became New York • English had strategic harbor in middle of colonies • Autocratic (self- governance) spirit remained, also influences of architecture and place names
XIII. Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania • Quakers, began in England 1600’s • “quaked” with religious conviction • Refused to support Church of England with taxes, serve in military • William Penn establishes an asylum in New World • 1681 receives land grant from crown • Best advertised of colonies • Welcomed all types of settlers • Wanted forward looking settlers, liberal land policy • Attracted many immigrants
XIV. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors • Many settlers already there- along banks of Delaware River • Philadelphia was well planned city • Tolerant of Indians • Many came from other regions, non-Quaker settlers undermined this treatment
XIV. Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors • Government liberal • Representative assembly elected by landowners • Freedom of worship for all • Death penalty only for treason and murder • No plans for military defense • Dislike of slavery (important by early 1800’s) • Liberal policies attracted rich mix of ethnic groups • Quakers good businessmen • Exporters of grain, other foodstuffs • New Jersey started out as small Quaker settlements • 1702 New Jersey made a royal colony • Delaware had own assembly, under control of Pennsylvania until Revolutionary War
XV. The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies • Middle colonies had fertile soil, known as “bread colonies” • Rivers- ease of travel, brought people to backcountry • Landholdings were intermediate in size • Ethnically diverse, religious toleration • Economic, social democracy found in middle colonies
America 1720 • Population growing • Permanent settlements established • Transportation, communication improving • British kept hands off policy • Colonists developed own churches, governments, networks of trade