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Unit One: Founding the Nation

Unit One: Founding the Nation

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Unit One: Founding the Nation

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  1. Unit One: Founding the Nation (1500-1692)

  2. Goals of the Unit: • To recognize the reasons for and impact of European colonialism in America. • To understand the hardships of early English colonialism and what led to eventual success in the new land. • To be able to explain the similarities and differences between each colonies origin, politics, culture, economics, religion, etc.

  3. Day One: Introduce Unit GOAL OF TODAY: To discover what the reasons for and impact of European colonialism in America.

  4. Native Americans • Inhabited America since about 20,000-35,000 years ago • Approx. 100 million Native Americans • Thousands of different cultures and types of civilizations • Little to no contact until about 1500

  5. An Age of Expansion 1450 – Portugal invents caravel Less wind resistance, allows for faster sea transportation, easier routes Set up trading posts along Africa’s western coast 1492 – Columbus & Spanish fleet discover the Caribbean 1494 – Treaty of Tordesillas Splits New World between Spain and Portugal – Spanish succeed in New World 1500s – Spain and Portugal colonize “the New World” (America)

  6. Why Expansion? • Economic motives!!! • Set up plantations, forced natives into slavery • Gold, silver, natural resources • All extremely profitable • Transformed Europe’s economy

  7. Why European Dominance? • Native American isolation leads to no immunities and less technology • Disease, battles, harsh rule resulted in loss of 90% of native population

  8. Day Two: English Land in America GOAL OF TODAY: To understand the hardships of early English colonialism and what led to eventual success in the new land.

  9. Growth of “New Spain” in America • 1500s – Spain sets up American empire • Conquer natives in West Indies, expands through North and South America

  10. England Challenges Spain Protestant England vs. Catholic Spain 1577 – Francis Drake (backed by Elizabeth I) Circumnavigates globe, returns with loads of stolen Spanish loot – trip profit is 4,600%

  11. Spanish Armada (1588) • 1588 – Spanish Armada decimated in failed invasion of England • Spanish downfall, English dominance

  12. English Expansion Starts • 1585 – Lost colony of Roanoke fails • led by Sir Walter Raleigh • Late 1500s – Economic depression, overpopulation pushes for England’s first establishment in North America • Jamestown • 1606 – Virginia Company of London • Receives charter from King James I for settlement in New World • Charter gives settlers same rights as Englishmen • Gold a driving force for trip

  13. Jamestown, Virginia

  14. Jamestown • May 1607 – 100 settlers leave for North America • only 60 survive the trip • Small beach settlement • Challenges? • Disease, malnutrition, starvation, inexperience • Native American attacks • Settlers dying off fast

  15. Captain John Smith takes over Jamestown in 1608 • Forced settlers into line • Negotiated with Native Americans • “Starving Winter” of 1609-1610 • Population drops from 400 to 60 • Lord De La Warr – infamously brutal • Arrives in Jamestown in 1610 with supplies, military • Begins harsh military regime against the Natives

  16. Day Three: Colonies Develop GOAL OF TODAY: To be able to explain the similarities and differences between each colonies origin, politics, culture, economics, etc.

  17. Day Three: Colonies Develop GOAL OF TODAY: To be able to explain the similarities and differences between each colonies origin, politics, culture, economics, etc.

  18. De La Warr immediately declares war with Natives • First Anglo-Powhatan War (1610-1614) • De La Warr’s troops viciously attack Natives • Peace treaty, marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas • Rolfe is father of tobacco industry • Anglicization of Natives attempted • Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1644) • Native’s final effort ends in decimation • Native Powhatan population drops 90% • Disease, disorganization, disposable

  19. English Progress Made • 1619 – self government in Virginia • “House of Burgesses” • King James I didn’t trust H.O.B. • Made Virginia colony of England in 1924 • Tobacco thriving in Virginia • England begins to take over West Indies • Sugar plantations – need for slaves • Imported from Africa (4:1 ratio) • Barbados Slave Code, 1661

  20. Colonies expand between 1607 - 1733

  21. The Plantation Colonies • Maryland, Virginia, N Carolina, S Carolina, Georgia • Devoted to exporting commercial agriculture (tobacco, rice) – slavery • Plantation style didn’t favor urban growth • Few schools, no printing presses • Large areas, few rich in power • Church of England dominant faith, mostly tolerant • Tobacco crops destroy soil

  22. The Middle Colonies The Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) Branch of Protestant dissenters in mid 1600s Bothersome to authorities, refused taxes, oaths William Penn Wealthy Englishman 1681 – Granted large amount of land (Pennsylvania) by King Charles II Close relationship with James II (removed Catholic King)

  23. Pennsylvania Quakers were simple, devoted, democratic Against war and violence Tolerant of natives Pennsylvania took in immigrants seeking religious freedom Excluded Jews and Catholics “Blue Laws” Outlawed ungodly behaviors Plays, cards, dice, games, excessive laughter By 1700, Pennsylvania became one of the most populated and prosperous colonies

  24. New Jersey and Delaware New Jersey After English take over of NY, granted to Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret Area in NJ split into two: East NJ and West NJ, both sold to Penn in 1681 Proprietors of NJ surrender power to royal crown in 1702 – New Jersey combined, colonized Delaware Province of Pennsylvania Own assembly in 1701 Never “technically” it’s own colony First state, 1776

  25. The Middle Colonies NY, NJ, Penn, Delaware “The Middle Colonies” Exported lots of grain Lumber, fur-trade More ethnically diverse More religious tolerance Economic, social democracy

  26. The Northern Colonies Develop • Religious persecution in England • “Separatists” fleeing England arrive at Plymouth, MA in 1620 • Mayflower Compact (1620) • Bay Colony (1629) • Non-Separatist Puritans fearing more persecution receive charter to form Massachusetts Bay Company • Great Migration (1630-42) • 70,000 refugees leave England • (20,000 to Colonies, 50,000 to West Indies) • John Winthrop – Governor for 19 years • “city upon a hill”, beacon to humanity, holy society, religious experiment • Fur trade, fishing, shipbuilding – Mass. Bay Colony prospers

  27. “Bible Commonwealth” Winthrop distrusted democracy Only Puritan men had voting rights “The General Court” annually elected Winthrop to enforce “God’s law” Limited separation of church & state John Cotton – devout Puritan preacher “Protestant ethic” Committed to work, spiritually intense Fear of hell

  28. “Bible Commonwealth” Fines, floggings, banishment Dissention begins Four Quakers hung Anne Hutchinson Challenges Puritan orthodoxy Banished from Mass. Bay Roger Williams Young minister, separatist Extremely opposite views Banished, begins Rhode Island colony

  29. Rhode Island Colony Williams flees to Rhode Island in 1636 Religious freedom for all Jews, Catholics, Quakers Exiles, refugees flock to R.I. “Sewer Colony” Became fiercely independent Official colony in 1644

  30. New England Spreads Connecticut Hartford founded in 1635 Reverend Thomas Hooker and Boston Puritans populated area The Fundamental Orders (1639) Constitution establishing democracy New Haven established in 1638 Merges with other settlements in Conn. Valley Officially a colony in 1662 1677 – Maine purchased by Mass. New Hampshire absorbed in 1641 by Mass. Breaks away in 1679, official colony

  31. Day Four: Colonial New York City GOAL OF TODAY: To understand the history of colonial New York City and how it’s past has shaped the city it has become today.

  32. Northern Colonies Dutch East-India Company and Dutch West-Indies Company

  33. The 13 Colonies • Virginia – Jamestown, 1607 • Massachusetts – Plymouth Plantation, 1620 • Mayflower Compact, 1621 • Massachusetts Bay, 1630 (Puritans) • New Hampshire, 1623 • Breaks away from Massachusetts • New York, 1626 (Dutch), Duke of York • New Amsterdam (NY) & Fort Orange (Albany) • New Jersey, 1626 • Originally granted by Lord Carteret & Lord Berkeley • Sold to Quakers in 1674 & 1680 • “All men are created equal”

  34. Maryland, 1634 • Formed by Lord Baltimore • Haven for Catholics, Act of Toleration (1649) • Rhode Island, 1644 • Minister Roger Williams exiled from Mass. Bay • Believed in separation of Church & State • State business bound to corrupt Church • Believed in Native American reparations • South Carolina (Carolina), 1650 • Originally granted to 8 supporters of King Charles I • Connecticut, 1662 • Thomas Hooker breaks from Mass. • In search of land ownership – property ownership required • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

  35. North Carolina splits from SC, 1729 • Geographically different from SC • Abandon slave holding aristocracy, institute democracy • Pennsylvania, 1681 • A land grant to the Penn family • William Penn creates Quaker haven • “Holy Experiment” guarantees religious freedom, liberal land grants and political participation to all • Delaware, 1776 • Originally part of Penn for sea access • Geographically isolated, already had independent legislature • Georgia, 1733 • Established in attempt to alleviate the overcrowding in England debtor’s prisons • Buffer between Spanish Florida and South Carolina

  36. Day Five: Colonies Develop GOAL OF TODAY: To understand what life was like in the various colonies and how they were both similar and different politically, socially, religiously, economically, etc.

  37. Living in the Colonies What was life like in the early days of the colonies? Harsh conditions Disease was rampant Few people survived past 40 or 50 years 6:1 ratio of men to women 1720 – female population rises in Virginia Family life starts becoming more established Tobacco thriving in Virginia and Maryland Indentured servants “Headright system” Sponsorship of indentured servants were rewarded with land ownership

  38. Day Six: Colonial Society GOAL OF TODAY: To understand what life was like in the various colonies and how they were both similar and different politically, socially, religiously, economically, etc.

  39. Bacon’s Rebellion Late 1600s – many poor, single, free men lacked Money, land, women, work Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion – 1676 29 year old planter in Virginia Rounded up 2,000 men to protest Governor William Berkeley’s friendly policy on Indians Berkeley had successful fur-trading relations with Indians – he refused to change his policy The mob stormed and murdered Indian villages then torched the capitol Bacon dies of sudden disease and Berkeley crushes rebellion What does this result in? A search for less troublesome labor for plantations… Slavery

  40. Slavery in the Colonies Africans in Jamestown, 1619 By 1670, population at 2,000 1680s English wages rise - leads to… Less indentured servants leaving for America Black slaves started to outnumber white servants 1700s – slave trade to colonies increasing 1750 – slaves account for half off Virginian population South Carolina ratio (2:1) The Barbados Slave Code of 1662 still in effect

  41. Slave Life Life for slaves tougher in the south Rice vs. Tobacco Illegal to teach slaves to read Slaves begin to develop hybrid languages Music becomes part of culture Revolts: 1712 – rebellion in NYC 12 whites killed, 21 slaves executed 1739 – South Carolina slaves revolt and try to escape to Spanish Florida – stopped by local militia

  42. Social Gap in the South A social gap begins to widen in the Southern colonies 1. Great Planters: owned large amounts of slaves and land; ruled the region's economy and monopolized political power. 2. Small Farmers: largest social group; tilled their own modest plots and may have owned one or two slaves. 3. Landless Whites: many were former indentured servants. 4. Slaves

  43. New England Society Migrated as families, not individually Women married young, large families Marriage and family life prioritized Disease not as much of a factor in NE Life expectancy: 70 years Women usually held more power in the South – why? Life expectancy much lower in South Men held much more power in New England New England law was very severe and strict “The Scarlet Letter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne

  44. New England Society New England well organized New towns legally chartered Meetinghouses Democratic roots Education: <50 family towns had to provide primary education. <100 had to provide secondary education. Harvard, MA (1636) William and Mary, VA (1693)

  45. Puritanism’s Hold on Society “Jeremiad” Sermons that scold church-goers and spread fear of hell and 1662 – “Half-Way Covenant” New formula for Church membership Almost all could participate in Church, even non or half-converted Church was in need of membership and money – more membership = more money Results: weakened religious devotion from early Puritan days Line between “elect” members and others disappearing

  46. Salem Witch Trials • 1690s – A group of adolescent girls claim bewitchment • Accusations quickly became political, social • Mass hysteria: witch-hunt leads to executions of 20 people • Witch-hunt hysteria ends in 1693

  47. Celebration of Learning!(AKA a Test) • Small test: • 50 points • 20 multiple choice (2 points each) • 1 short answer (10 points) • Major theme of the test will be comparing and contrasting the colonies, and the development/history of each.