The Medieval Catholic Church • Filled the power vacuum left from the collapse of the classical world. • Operated on the Monasticism: • a religious way of life that involves renouncing worldly pursuits in order to fully devote one's self to spiritual work. • Benedictine Rule of poverty, chastity, and obedience. • Provided schools for the children of the upper class. • Libraries & scriptoria to copy books and illuminate manuscripts. • Monks missionaries to the barbarians.
Organization of the Church • Each village or town had a number of priests • Each priest was overseen by a bishop • A group of bishops (regionally) was overseen by an archbishop • The archbishops reported directly to the Pope in Vatican City.
Monks • Monks were the lowest level of the church. • Primary jobs: • Help the poor and transient • Copy books by hand • Important in spreading Christianity around Europe.
Catholic Church in the Late Middle Ages • Life for people in the Middle Ages was short and hard. • People comforted by the Roman Catholic belief that they would go to heaven if they followed the church’s teachings. • Also feared punishment after death for not following the church’s teachings.
Power of the Church • Church had great economic power. • Collecting fiefs from lords in exchange for services performed by clergy. • Single largest land owner in Europe • Tithe – a tax Christians were required to pay that equaled 10% of their income • Indulgences – a monetary payment of penalty which, supposedly, absolved one of past sins and/or released one from purgatory after death. • Peter’s Pence - a yearly tax of a penny levied by the Holy See on every household to support the Pope
Power of the Church • Church had great secular power • Church had their own set of laws called canon law, and its own courts of justice. • Popes believed that they had the authority over kings • Sometimes excommunicated secular rulers who challenged or threatened papal power.
Essential Question What did the kings and popes argue about in the Late Middle Ages?
The High Middle Ages Kings vs. Popes
X Who is in charge?! • So, there’s no emperor, no king, no president, no single ruler of Europe. • There are a bunch of landowners and rulers of small kingdoms who want more power. • Oh, and there’s a Pope. • But no military power
Remember…Feudalism has spread all over Europe! So there are a bunch of kings ruling over each little area!
Charlemagne ordained • The picture on the next slide is of Charlemagne being crowned by the pope. • Who seems to be the one in charge in the picture? • What makes you think that?
Kings vs. Popes Round 1: Charlemagne vs. Pope Leo
The Problem • Both Charlemagne and Pope Leo thought they should lead Christendom & the Christian Church • Charlemagne united Europe under Christianity so he felt he should lead • The Pope was the head of the church so he thought he should lead • Leo crowned Charles making it seem like Charlemagne’s authority came from Leo (he who gives the crown has the power!) • This was only the start of the struggle...
Philosophical Who do you believe should run the empire? The King The Church Throwdown
Kings vs. Popes Round 2: Henry IV vs. Pope Gregory VII
The Conflict Deepens $ • Charlemagne’s empire eventually splits in 3 • Henry IV eventually becomes king of the east (Germany) • Gregory VII is pope in Rome at that time • Gregory challenged the authority of European monarchies over control of appointments (called investitures) of church officials such as bishops and abbots
Investiture Controversy • Simony = the act of selling church offices and roles. • Important source of income for leaders among the nobility • Bishops and abbots typically nobility • Younger sons of the nobility would often be appointed bishops • It was beneficial for a ruler or nobleman to appoint (or sell the office to) someone who would be loyal Pope Gregory says NO!
Mine! No Mine!
Henry IV, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Gregory at present not pope but false monk. I, Henry, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, come down, and be d*m*ed throughout the ages. Sincerely, King Henry IV
What? Sorry! Can’t hear you! Come back tomorrow! I’m sorry pope, please let me in!
Pope Gregory Vs Henry IV • Pope Gregory questioned Henry’s authority to pick bishops and abbots. • Henry tried to get Gregory removed as Pope. • Gregory excommunicated Henry. • Henry begged for 3 days to be let back into the church so people would listen to him again. • Gregory let him in after proving the pope was the most powerful figure.
Kings vs. Popes Round 3: King John vs. The Church
Kingly Troubles • Many kings became ruthless and increasingly power hungry. • King John began taxing the Church in England. • The Church decided they would then leave the country entirely. • People feared they would be sent to Hell.
The Magna Carta • After the church left the nobles threatened to abandon King John too • No priests = damnation • John arresting people for no reason if he felt they were challenging his authority • Nobles wrote out a list of their demands called the Magna Carta. (Great Charter) • Either agree to our demands or we leave and take our soldiers with us.
Nobles will face punishment only by other nobles. The king, like all others in England, must follow the law. The rights of the Church are considered to be the same as the rights of freemen. Your lands cannot be taken in payment for debt as long as you pay the debt some other way. There shall be standard weights and measures throughout the realm. The King shall not raise taxes without first consulting with the barons. No one will be put in jail without first having a trial by jury. No widow shall be forced to marry so long as she prefers to live without a husband. For small offences you will face only a small penalty. The king cannot force anyone to go to war outside of the country. No one will be forced to make bridges at river-banks. (seriously) The Magna Carta
The Magna Carta I, King John, accept that I have to rule according to the law. • Not to imprison nobles without trial • To have fair taxation for the nobles • To let nobles travel wherever they like • Not to interfere in Church matters • Not to take crops without paying for them …and lot more things too!!
Crystal Ball What do you think King John did after signing the Magna Carta?
You Can’t Make Me! • John appealed to Pope Innocent for help, observing that the charter compromised the pope's rights • Innocent obliged; he declared the charter "not only shameful and demeaning, but illegal and unjust" and excommunicated the rebel barons. • The failure of the agreement led rapidly to war with the nobility - known as the Barons’ Wars.
Meanwhile in the Rest of Europe… The Crusades
What is a Crusade? • War fought for religious purposes • Goal was to regain the “holy land” (Jerusalem) for Christians from Muslim control • Pope Urban II ordered Europeans to take back the land in 1095. • He promised that any who fought against the “infidels” would go to Heaven.
The Battles 1st Crusade: Conquered Jerusalem and held it for almost 100 years. 2nd: Muslim leader Saladin retakes Jerusalem 3rd: King Richard fights Saladin and loses. While gone Prince John takes over…Magna Carta, etc. 4th-8th:Crusaders lose more.
Crusade Results Holy land remains under Arab control. Europeans realized there was much more to the world than they ever knew Islamic science, math, art, literature, and military science Trade and technology expanded: gun powder, coffee, etc. Europe became more unified as the knights now had a common enemy. Ahh, I wuv you too Frenchie! I wuv you German guy!