THE CHURCH IN THE MIDDLE AGES Major Themes I. Christianity II. History of the Church III. Organization of the Church IV. Sacraments of the Church V. Problems of the Church VI. Attempts at Reform VII. Monasteries and Convents VIII. Church Architecture IX. Important Church Terms
CHRISTIANITY EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH “THE SCHISM” 1054 ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH PROTESTANTISM LUTHERAN PRESBYTERIAN BAPTIST METHODIST ETC “THE REFORMATION” 1500’s
HISTORY OF THE CHURCH 500-1000 • The Church dominated early medieval life • Viking plundering of monasteries during 800’s and 900’s threatened the Church • The lower clergy was barely literate • Church leaders were often corrupt 1000-1300 • Reforms improved conditions. • Popes grew stronger and begin challenging the power of emperors and kings • Religion spread rapidly
SACRAMENTS OF THE CHURCH • Baptism - Symbolizes purification of the soul. • Confirmation - strengthening by the Holy Spirit. • Holy Communion - Symbolic of the blood and body of Jesus. • Penance - Confession of Sins. • Extreme Unction - Annointing of the sick. Administering of the Last Rites. • Matrimony-Spiritual agreement between husband and wife. • Holy Orders - Ordination into the clergy.
BISHOPS Administered a Diocese of several parishes Appointed Parish Priests Administered Provinces Administered sacraments of Confirmation & Ordination PARISH PRIESTS Usually of peasant origins Limited formal education Conducted Church services Administered most sacraments Supervised moral and religious instruction of parishioners POPE AND CURIA Spiritual /political leader Advised by a council called the Curia Wielded great power and influence over civil rulers ARCHBISHOPS Administered Provinces Had authority over Bishops and their Diocese Helped set Church policy ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH
PROBLEMS OF THE CHURCH • Marriage of the clergy - forbidden by Church law • Simony - Buying & selling of Church positions • Lay Investiture - Granting of authority to clergy members by kings or nobles • Heresy - Religious beliefs that differed from Church doctrine • Corruption of early popes - Prior to the 11th century, popes were chosen by the nobles of Rome. Many were unspiritual and concerned only with wealth and power.
ATTEMPTS AT CHURCH REFORM • 1059 - Church decrees that all future popes would be chosen by a College of Cardinals • 1073 - Pope Gregory VII ends Lay Investiture and marriage among clergy • 1232 - The Inquisitionwas formed to find and judge heretics. Heretics could repent, be tortured, or be killed WEAPONS OF THE CHURCH • Excommunication - Cut individuals off from the Church. Could no longer receive the sacraments • Interdict- Cut off sacraments to an entire region or nation
MONASTERIES & CONVENTS • Communities for monks and nuns • Provided schools for training of the clergy • Preserved classical and religious manuscripts • Provided medical care and assistance for poor • Became great centers of wealth THE BENEDICTINE RULE • Must vow to stay for life • Spend 7 hours a day in manual labor • Two hours daily devoted to reading the Bible • Pray and worship 8 times daily • Meals should be limited with no red meat allowed
CHURCH ARCHITECTURE ROMANESQUE (1000-1200) • Low thick walls with small windows • Arched doorways like Roman buildings • Walls painted in brilliant colors • Adorned with statues and icons GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE (LATE 1100’S) • Tall thin walls with large glass windows • Flying buttresses support high walls and roofs • High vaulted ceilings • Adorned with stained glass windows of religious scenes
THE CHURCH:IMPORTANT TERMS • CANON LAW - Law of the Church. Bishops operated courts to consider civil and religious matters • TITHE - Tax imposed by the Church which required every Christian family to pay one tenth of income • LEGATES - Diplomats of the Church who represented the Pope in dealing with church officials and civil rulers • FRIARS - Traveling clergy members who fought against heresy and attempted to win back heretics. TWO ORDERS OF FRIARS • Dominicans - Spanish order whose friars wore white robes. • Franciscans - Italian order whose friars wore brown robes. Founded by St. Francis of Assisi.