Download
ketahanan lingkungan environmental hazards human health n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health

KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health

219 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Environmental Hazards & Human Health

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN:Environmental Hazards & Human Health

  2. Apakah bahaya lingkungan ? 'Environmental hazard'is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment. This term incorporates topics like pollution andnatural hazardssuch as storms and earthquakes. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  3. Sumber: http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/properties/module_4/index.htm…. Diunduh  16/12/2012

  4. BAHAYA DAN RISIKO BAHAYA = Hazard: Is “a factor or exposure that may adversely affect health” it is a qualitative term expressing the potential of an environmental agent to harm the health of certain individuals if the exposure level is high enough and/or if other conditions apply. Risiko Is “the probability that an event will occur, the probability of unfavorable outcome e.g that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. It is the quantitative probability that a health effect will occur after an individual has been exposed to a specified amount of a hazard. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  5. KONTAMINASI Contamination -- Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use. Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  6. PENCEMARAN Pollutionis the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to theecosystemi.e. physical systems or living organisms.Pollution can take the form ofchemical substances, orenergysuch as noise, heat, or light energy. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed aspoint sourceornonpoint source pollution. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  7. POLUTAN = PENCEMAR • A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. • Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: • Sifat kimianya, • Konsentrasinya • Persistensinya. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Air_Pollution-Causes%26Effects.svg

  8. POLUTAN & KONTAMINASI "Pollution" is generally used when you're talking about something big, like a whole environment, or an entire river, or something else really large. "Contamination" can refer to very small quantities of something - contaminated food, medicine, drinking water supply; it can also mean a very small amount of foreign or harmful material, such as bacterial contamination, or a toxin, especially when it's not readily visible or noticeable. For instance, a surgical suite could be contaminated simply because someone walks into it when they're not sterile, and it would be completely invisible. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  9. BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN BAGI KESEHATAN ? ANY external factor that negatively affects your health can be considered an environmental health “hazard." Common environmental health hazards include indoor and outdoor air pollution, and contaminated food and water. Less commonly discussed environmental health hazards include lack of sidewalks, crime, insufficient physical activity, poor nutrition, social isolation, noise, stress, and the lack of aesthetically pleasing living environments. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  10. Bahaya Tradisional Disease Vectors Infectious agents Housing and Shelter Drinking Water & Sanitation Indoor air Pollution Dietary Deficiencies Reproduction Injury hazards Bahaya Modern Tobacco smoking Alcohol and drugs Transport hazards Environmental pollution Outdoor air pollution Chemical hazards Occupational Hazards Unbalanced Diet Stress JENIS BAHAYA KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  11. Jalur masuknya bahaya EH Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 • Inhalation • airborne contaminants • Absorption • penetration through the skin • Ingestion • eating • drinking Routes of intestinal exposure to air pollutants. Urban and industrial air pollutants can contaminate food and water, which are then ingested by humans or indirectly enter the human food chain through consumption of contaminated animals. Pollutants are also inhaled and then either absorbed systemically and delivered through the blood stream to the gut or cleared by airway cilia and then ingested. Diunduh dari: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187399461100078X

  12. PAPARAN BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 • Acute • Short term period between exposure and onset of symptoms • Chronic • Long time period between exposure to an agent and the onset of symptoms Mechanisms of intestinal injury by air pollutants. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187399461100078X

  13. JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 There are five types of environmental hazards: • Chemical; Physical; Mechanical; Biological; Psychosocial The system of environmental health. The human living environment consists of home, work and recreational environments. The interaction between these environments and human activities results in various types of hazards that may adversely affect human health. (Source: adapted from Bassett, 2004) Sumber: http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=452284&extra=thumbnail_id392363134945......  15/12/2012

  14. BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA Pesticides; Acids and Bases; Metal fumes ; Solvents; Gases Sumber:. http://aquaticpath.umd.edu/appliedtox/module1-termin.html.....  15/12/2012

  15. BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  16. BAHAYA BIOLOGIS Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 • Insects; Rodents; Animals • Microorganisms: • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites • Yeasts • Molds Biological risk assessment and risk management Sumber: …. Diunduh dari: http://www.biosafety.be/CU/RA_Fiches/Intro_and_menu.html......  17/12/2012

  17. BAHAYA FISIKA Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 Tipe Bahaya Fisika: • Noise and Vibration • Ionizing Radiation • Non-ionizing Radiation • Light, Lasers • Pressure • Extremes of Temperature Characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Sumber: gtcceis.anl.gov …. Diunduh dari: ......  18/12/2012

  18. BAHAYA PSIKOSOSIAL Common Signs of Anxiety Anxiety itself could also be a result of a deeper physiological or psychological cause. That is why the possible manifestations that are associated with anxiety are numerous and can be classified into the specific areas of the body affected. Anxiety is often difficult to identify in a person. Extreme cases present with severe symptoms. This makes stress or anxiety exercises and treatments an essential for anyone going through anxiety attacks. Read More Here: http://relieveanxietynow.com/common-signs-of-anxiety/ • Uncertainty • Anxiety • Lack of feeling of control over one own life • Homesickness • Isolation Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  19. APAKAH STRESS ITU? • Stress is a human response to stressors • Stress is a specific event or situation that causes a mental or psychological reaction. • Stress is a process resulting from the interaction between humans and the environment. • Stress process consists of 2 stages: • Deciding whether or not an event (stressor) poses a hazard • Appraising the possibilities of dealing with the situation. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  20. EFEK STRESS THD KESEHATAN • Penyakit Kardiovaskular • Hypertension • Ischemic heart diseases • Increase heart rate • Peptic ulcer • Asma Bronchial Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 http://womenonthefence.com/2012/12/03/new-research-on-stress-how-you-react-today-effects-your-health-in-the-future/

  21. BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN YANG SERIUS • Polutan Udara • Indoor air pollutants • Outdoor air pollutants • Kelangkaan air & Polutan air • Bahaya makanan • Bahaya rumah hunian • Bahaya permukiman • Bahaya serangga & Rodents • Pestisida • Bahaya lingkungan global Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  22. EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT PENCEMARAN UDARA Climate change and health   Climate change has a range of complex interlinkages with health. These include direct impacts, such as temperature- related illness and death; the health impacts of extreme weather events; the effect of air pollution in the form of spores and moulds. Sumber: Diunduh dari: http://www.gits4u.com/envo/envo7.htm......  15/12/2012

  23. BAHAYA KESEHATAN YANG PENTING? Do We Face? The effects of environmental exposures on health depend on the social settings in which the exposures occur and on individual behaviours. Behavioural risk factors are sometimes closely related to physical risk factors (e.g. hygiene is related to sanitation) and modify the health impacts of the physical risk factors. Indeed, the specific contributions of related behavioural and physical risk factors sometimes cannot easily be separated, as for example in the risk factor "water, sanitation and hygiene". Sumber: https://apps.who.int/peh/burden/9241546204/9241546204chap2.htm.diunduh 15/12/2012

  24. APAKAH PENCEMARAN UDARA? • Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health and quality of life • Can occur indoor or outdoor, in cities and across continents and even globally • Air pollutants consist of: gaseous pollutants, odors, suspended particle matter (dust, fumes, mist and smoke) Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  25. POLUSI UDARA DI DALAM RUANGAN • Indoor air can be defined as any non-industrial indoor space where a person spends a period of an hour or more in any day. • This can include the air space in the office, classroom, motor vehicle, shopping centre, hospital and home. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  26. PENCEMAR UDARA DALAM RUANGAN • second-hand tobacco smoke; • airborne mold and mildew; • lead-impregnated dust from old paint cockroach shedding; • dust mite particles; • combustion gases released by stoves, heaters, candles and fireplaces; chemicals released by • dry cleaned clothes; • cleaning products; • room deodorizers; • office supplies; • paints and sealers; • new furniture and pressed wood; • personal care products; and • pesticides. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  27. SUMBER PENCEMAR INDOOR Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  28. PENCEMAR UDARA OUTDOOR • Ozone (O3); Particulate Matter (PM) • Carbon Monoxide (CO(; Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2); Lead (Pb) • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) • Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs( Sumber: http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/ap3.html......  15/12/2012

  29. SUMBER PENCEMAR UDARA • Transportation (Mobile sources ) • Motor vehicles, rail, shipping, aviation. • Industry sources • Power stations, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing. • Power Plants • Central heating • Incineration of domestic wastes Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  30. EFEK KESEHATAN – PENCEMAR UDARA • Irritation of nose, eye, and throat • Respiratory diseases (Bronchitis, Asthma, cough, nausea …etc.) • Cardiovascular diseases • Toxicity (CO) • Decrease of pulmonary function and restricted activities) • Cancers (Benzene) • Neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders (Pb). • kidney/liver damage, CNS disorders (Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and chromium) • Increased hospital admissions and ER visits. • Premature death Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  31. Efek Polusi thd Kesehatan Polusi Udara Polusi Air Bakteri Parasit Bahan Kimia Kontaminasi Tanah Ozon Pb Pestisida Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  32. EFEK KESEHATAN POLUSI UDARA Piramida efek kesehatan Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  33. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA • Reduce emissions (conservation and improved efficiency); e.g., refineries • Collect, capture, and retain pollutants before entering the atmosphere; e.g., gas stations • Regulating automobile exhaust using catalytic converter, control of sulfur dioxide through scrubbing • Varied pollutant-control strategies and new and improved technologies Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  34. Risikobiasanyadinyatakandalam “Peluang” • Risiko • Probability and possibility • Pendugaan Risiko • Pengelolaan Risiko Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  35. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA • Regulatory control • Standards (process and emission) • Engineering control • Ventilation (general and local) • Process change • Work practice control • Administrative control • Personnel protective equipment Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  36. PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR • There are 4 billion cases of diarrhea worldwide each year and 2.2 million avoidable deaths-that's a death every 14 seconds. • Most diarrheal deaths occur in the Majority World and just being able to wash one's hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhea by 35%. • Insect-related diseases Malaria, is the biggest killer, causing 1-2 million deaths a year. At any given time 100 million people suffer from the disease. • Parasites Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the majority world population. About 200 million people are affected by schistosomiasis (bilharzia), with 200,000 dying each year. • After a peak in the late 1980s, guinea-worm infections have been declining as water sources are better monitored. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  37. PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR • Every day, diarrheal diseases cause some 6,000 deaths, mostly among children under five: in 2001, 1.96 million people died from infectious diarrheas; 1.3 million were children under five. • Diarrheal diseases have killed more children in the past ten years than all the people lost to armed conflict since World War II. • Between 1,085,000 and 2,187,000 deaths due to diarrheal diseases can be attributed to the 'water, sanitation and hygiene' risk factor, 90% of them among children under five. • With simple hygiene measures such as washing hands after using the toilet or before preparing food, most of these deaths are preventable. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  38. BAHAYA AIR & EFEK KESEHATAN • Biological • Chemical • physical Sumber:. Diunduh dari: http://www.idph.state.ia.us/WhatWeDo/Profiles.aspx?category=Environmental%20Hazards......  15/12/2012

  39. Volatile organic compounds Hydrophobic organic compounds Endocrine disruptors Petroleum Additives Pesticides Heavy metals Other inorganic elements Acids/bases Oxidants/reductants Chlorination by-products Combustion by-products BAHAN BERBAHAYA DALAM AIR 39 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  40. PENYAKIT DARI AIR Typhoid fever ; Giardia ; Dysentery ; Cholera ; Diarrhea (caused by a variety of pathogens) ; Hepatitis ; Polio ; Worms Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 Classification of water-related diseases Sumber; http://helid.digicollection.org/en/d/Jwhow01e/2.1.html

  41. JASAD PATHOGENIK 41 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  42. JASAD PATHOGENIK 42 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  43. PENYAKIT YANG BERHUBUNGAN DNEGAN AIR 43 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  44. TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA 44 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  45. PENDUGAAN RISIKO & PENGELOLAAN RISIKO PENDUGAAN RISIKO PENGELOLAAN RISIKO Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012

  46. TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA Risk Assessment Risk Management Identifikasi bahaya Apa bahaya itu? Hazard identification What is the hazard? Analisis komparatif risiko Bagaimana dibandingkan dg risiko mlainnya? Risk reduction How much should it be reduced? Probability of risk How likely is the event? Risk reduction strategy How will the risk be reduced? Consequences of risk What is the likely damage? Financial commitment How much money should be spent? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. ………….www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 Fig. 17-3, p. 440

  47. KONTROL PENCEMARAN AIR Pencegahan pencemaran Meminimumkan pencemaran recycling and re-use; treatment; encourage cleaner production technologies; encourage good housekeeping Disinfection (Chlorination) Disposal or discharge of waste water only under specified conditions; precautionary approach; differentiated approach; polluter pays 47 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012

  48. BAHAYA MAKANAN About risk analysis in food The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are in the forefront of the development of risk-based approaches for the management of public health hazards in food. The approach used is called risk analysis, and is made up of three components: Risk assessment; Risk management; Risk communication Sumber: …. Diunduh dari: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/micro/riskanalysis/en/......  15/12/2012

  49. TIPE-TIPE BAHAYA MAKANAN • Biologis: bacteria, viruses, parasites • Bahan Kimia: heavy metals, natural toxins, sanitizers, pesticides, antibiotics • Fisika: bone, rocks, metal Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012 Diunduh dari: http://www.agnet.org/htmlarea_graph/library/20110717204233/eb496f5.jpg

  50. BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN Biologis = Organisme hidup • Dalam daging dan unggas: • Salmonella bacteria (poultry and eggs) • Trichinella spiralis parasite (pork) On Fruits and Vegetables: • E. coli bacteria (apple juice) • Cyclospora parasite (raspberries) • Hepatitis A virus (strawberries) Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard . Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-......  15/12/2012