passive n.
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  2. VERBS THAT CANNOT BE MADE PASSIVE • Certain verbs describing states, such as HAVE (= own), BE, BELONG, LACK, RESEMBLE and SEEM; also FIT (be the right size), GET, LET, SUIT John has a Ferari. These verbs cannot be used in the passive even if they describe an action: John is having lunch. But the passive can describe a state which is the result of an action (meaning similar to -ed participle adjective.

  3. VERBS THAT CANNOT BE MADE PASSIVE INTRANSITIVE VERBS: The ship disappeared. Verbs of WANTING AND LIKING: WANT, LOVE, HATE etc. + Object ‘ INFINITIVE: She wanted him to leave. Verbs followed by to + infinitive usually cannot be made passive: I refuse to answer your questions.

  4. VERBS THAT CANNOT BE MADE PASSIVE Intransitive verbs: GO, COME, SLEEP, DISAPPEAR, DIE, RISE, ARISE, LIE ... N.B. Don’t confuse: a)lie-lay-lain (intransitive,irregular), Lie-lied (intransitive, regular) lay-laid-laid (transitive, irregular) b) Rise –rose - risen (intransitive,irregular) Raise –raised (transitive,regular) arise – arose – arisen (intransitive,irregular),

  5. PASSIVE – PRESENT SIMPLE I am seen. We are seen. You are seen. You are seen. He is seen. They are seen. She is seen It is seen ? - Am I seen? I am not seen. Are we/you/they seen? You/we/they are not seen. Is he/she/it seen? He/she/it is not seen. Where is he seen?

  6. PASSIVE PRESENT CONTINUOUS + I am being followed. You are being followed. He is being followed. She is being followed. It is being followed. We are being followed. You are being followed. They are being followed.

  7. PASSIVE PRESENT CONTINUOUS - I am not being followed. You/we/they are not being followed. He/She/it is not being followed. ? Am I being followed? Are you/we/they being followed? Is he being followed? Why are they followed?

  8. PASSIVE – PAST SIMPLE I was seen. We were seen. You were seen. You were seen. He was seen. They were seen. She was seen It was seen ? - Was I seen? I was not seen. Were we/you/they seen? You/we/they were not seen. Was he/she/it seen? He/she/it was not seen. Where was he seen?

  9. PASSIVE PAST CONTINUOUS + I was being followed. You were being followed. He was being followed. She was being followed. It was being followed. We were being followed. You were being followed. They were being followed.

  10. PASSIVE PAST CONTINUOUS - I was not being followed. You/we/they were not being followed. He/She/it was not being followed. ? Was I being followed? Were you/we/they being followed? Was he being followed? Why were they followed?

  11. PASSIVE PRESENT PERFECT + I have been seen. We have been seen. You have been seen. You have been seen. He has been seen. They have been seen She has been seen. It has been seen.

  12. PASSIVE PRESENT PERFECT - I/You/we/they haven’t been seen. He/She/It hasn’t been seen. ? Have I been seen? Have we been seen? Have you been seen? Have you been seen? Has he/she/it been seen? Have they been seen? Where has she been seen? Who has been seen?

  13. PASSIVE PAST PERFECT + I had been seen. We had been seen. You had been seen. You had been seen. He had been seen. They had been seen. She had been seen. It had been seen

  14. PASSIVE PAST PERFECT - I/You/he/she/it/we/they hadn’t been seen. ? Had I been seen? Had we been seen? Had you been seen? Had you been seen? Had he/she/it been seen? Had they been seen? Where has she been seen? Who has been seen? Had they been seen before he returned home?

  15. PASSIVE FUTURE SIMPLE + I shall/will be seen. We shall/will be seen. You will be seen. You will be seen. He will be seen. They will be seen. She will be seen. It will be seen.

  16. PASSIVE FUTURE SIMPLE - shall+not = shan’t / will+not = won’t I shan’t/won’t be seen. You won’t be seen. He/She/It won’t be seen. We shan’t/won’t be seen. You/they won’t be seen. ? Shall/Will I be seen? Will you be seen? Will he/she/it be seen? Shall/Will we be seen? Will you/they be seen?

  17. PASSIVE + MODAL + infinitive + I can be seen /I could be seen. I must be seen./I had to be seen. I may be seen /I might be seen. I should be seen. I ought to be seen. I am to be seen. I am going to be seen. I have to be seen/She has to be seen. + I used to be seen.

  18. PASSIVE + MODAL + infinitive - I cannot be seen. I can’t be seen. I needn’t be seen. I wouldn’t be seen. She mustn’t be seen. I may not be seen. I am not to be seen. I am not going to be seen I don’t have to be seen/ She doesn’t have to be seen + I didn’t use to be seen

  19. MODAL + PASSIVE INFINITIVE ? Can I be seen? Should I be seen? Need I be seen? May I been seen? Must she be seen? Are you going to be seen? Is he to be seen? Do you have to be seen?/ Does she have to be seen? Why should she be seen? Where might he be seen? What ought to be seen? Who must be seen? +Did I use to be seen?

  20. PASSIVE FUTURE PERFECT I shall/will have been married by the end of May 2007. You will have been observed by the end of next year. He will have been informed by the end of the month. She will have been told before elections. It will have been cleaned before the guests arrive. We shall/will have been finished by the end of 2007. You will have been interviewed .... They will have been interviewed ...

  21. MODAL + PASSIVE PERFECT INFINITIVE They must have been seen somewhere. They can’t have been told that stupid lie! It might have been stolen. It could have been done on time. He should have been invited to the party.

  22. PASSIVE INFINITIVE – simple/perfect Passive simple infinitive: to be seen To be given the role of Titania was Elizabeth’s greatest ambition. The boys were happy/lucky/delighted to be taken to the lake for a swim. She must be warned about the danger of pickpockets.________________________ Passive perfect infinitive: to have been seen The were proud to have been selected for the basketball team. He should have been punished for his misconduct.

  23. PASSIVE INFINITIVE – MAKE/SEE/HEAR/HELP and LET MAKE: The boss made me work late I was made to work late. SEE: I saw her take it. She was seen to take it. LET: The teacher let us leave early. We were allowed/permitted/given permission to mleave early.

  24. PASSIVE GERUND – present, perfect Passive present gerund – being seen I don’t like being lied to. He enjoys being spoiled._______________ Passive perfect infinitive – having been seen They hated not having been selected for the shortlist. We regret not having been shown the Acropolis.

  25. PASSIVE PARTICIPLE – present/perfect Passive present participle: being seen Not being told where to go, they asked for directions. Being seen, he decided to say hello. Passive perfect participle: having been seen The deal having been signed, we went out to celebrate. Having been told the truth, he finally realised his position.

  26. Agent A person who performs an action in a passive sentence is called the agent and is introduced by by. Active: Programmers write computer programmes. Passive: Computer programmes are written (by programmers).

  27. Instrument : passive + with ALIGN, ASSOCIATE, COVER, CROWD, DECORATE, FILL, FILM, LOCK An object which causes something to happen/is used to perform an action, is called an instrument, and is introduced by with. She was hit on the head with an umbrella. The rescue was filmed by a man with a video camera. The box was locked with a gold key. The Christmas tree was covered with ornaments and decorated with lights.