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Athletic Injuries

Athletic Injuries

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Athletic Injuries

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  1. Athletic Injuries Connie Rauser ATC Sabino Sports Medicine Class

  2. Injuries • Acute • Sudden onset • traumatic • Chronic • Overuse • Repetitive activities Athletic injuries

  3. Types of injuries • Closed Wounds • Skin • Musculoskeletal • Open Wounds • Skin • Musculoskeletal Athletic injuries

  4. What you need to know • What is the injury? • What is the mechanism of injury? • How do you recognize the injury? • Signs? • Symptoms? • How do you care for the injury? Athletic injuries

  5. Types of stress that cause injury • Tension • Stretching • Compression • Shearing • Bending Athletic injuries

  6. Tension • A force that pulls or stretches tissue • Example: sprain, strain Athletic injuries

  7. Stretching • Going beyond the “yield” point leading to a rupturing of soft tissue or fracturing a bone • Examples—sprain, strain, avulsion fracture Athletic injuries

  8. Compression • A force with enough energy to crush tissue • Example: arthritic changes, fracture, contusion Athletic injuries

  9. Shearing • A force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue • Example: blister, abrasion, vertebral disk injury Athletic injuries

  10. Bending • A force on the horizontal bone that places stress within the structure causing it to bend • Example: fracture • There can also be torsion or twisting that causes compression and tension in a spiral pattern. Athletic injuries

  11. Closed Wounds • Contusions • Strains • Sprains • Dislocations • Fractures Athletic injuries

  12. Contusions • Also known as bruise or charley horse • Direct blow to the body part • Pain, temporary LOM, bruising or discoloration, swelling • RICE, stretch Athletic injuries

  13. Contusion Athletic injuries

  14. Complications • If not treated properly can develop myositis ossificans • Bony formation within muscle Athletic injuries

  15. Myositis Ossificans Athletic injuries

  16. Myositis Ossificans Athletic injuries

  17. Sprains • Injury to ligaments, also know as “rolling” or “twisting” • Moving the joint beyond the normal range of motion • Pain, swelling, discoloration, LOM • RICE, crutches, immobilization, medical referral Athletic injuries

  18. Degrees of Sprains • 1st degree • overstretching • 2nd degree • Partial tearing • 3rd degree • Complete rupture Athletic injuries

  19. 1st degree sprain • Stretching of ligament • Minimal instability of joint • Mild to moderate pain • Localized swelling (minimal) • Joint stiffness • POT (point tenderness) • Discoloration Athletic injuries

  20. 2nd degree sprain • Partial tearing of ligament • Moderate joint instability • Moderate to severe pain • Swelling • Joint stiffness • POT • Discoloration • Inability to bear weight Athletic injuries

  21. 3rd degree sprain • Complete tearing of ligament • Joint instability • Severe pain initially followed by less pain due to disruption of nerve fibers • Lots of swelling • Discoloration • Joint stiffness • POT Athletic injuries

  22. Complications • Once a ligament is stretched/torn, it heals with inelastic scar tissue which prevents the ligament from regaining its original tension • Ruptured/torn ligaments may require surgery Athletic injuries

  23. Strains • Injury to muscle or tendon—”pulling” • Stretching beyond a normal range or strong muscle contraction • Pain, swelling, discoloration, “divot”, LOM • RICE, crutches, medical referral Athletic injuries

  24. Strains

  25. Degrees of Strains • 1st degree • Overstretching of muscle or tendon • no tearing of tissue • 2nd degree • Partial tearing of muscle or tendon • 3rd degree • Complete tearing or rupture of tissue Athletic injuries

  26. Strains • Signs and symptoms are similar to those of the sprains---it just occurs within the muscle or tendon area Athletic injuries

  27. Strains Athletic injuries

  28. Complications • Scar tissue is not as elastic, may lose some flexibility • Returning too soon can cause reinjury to area • Rehab may take longer than for sprains due to contractile properties of muscles Athletic injuries

  29. Dislocations • Bone ends at a joint are out of place • Joint is stressed beyond its normal boundaries • Obvious deformity, pain, LOM at that joint, shock • Immobilize joint, ice, treat for shock, call 911 or send to ER for reduction Athletic injuries

  30. Dislocations Athletic injuries

  31. Subluxations • Partial or incomplete dislocation • Joint stretched beyond normal ROM • Pain, swelling, LOM • RICE, immobilize if necessary, medical referral Athletic injuries

  32. Fractures • Broken bone • Great force on the bone that moves it or bends it beyond the “break” point • Pain, possible deformity, crepitus, unable or unwilling to move body part, discoloration, swelling • RICE, immobilize, crutches, medical referral Athletic injuries

  33. Kinds of Fractures • Avulsion • Blowout • Comminuted • Compression Athletic injuries

  34. Blowout fracture

  35. Kinds of Fractures • Epiphyseal • Greenstick • Longitudinal Athletic injuries

  36. Kinds of fractures cont’d • Oblique • Pathological • Serrated • Spiral Athletic injuries

  37. Pathological fractures Athletic injuries

  38. Kinds of Fractures • Stress • Transverse Athletic injuries

  39. Kinds of Fractures • A few more photos Athletic injuries

  40. Open Fractures & Dislocations • A break in the bone or the bone ends come out of place • The bone (end) is exposed, may be bleeding, pain, LOM, shock • Cover the exposed bone • Immobilize • Treat for shock • Transport or send to ER Athletic injuries

  41. Fixing the Fracture • Casting • Internal fixation • External Fixation Athletic injuries

  42. Open wounds • Abrasions • Incisions • Lacerations • Avulsions • Amputations • Puncture Athletic injuries

  43. Abrasions • Road rash, strawberry, traumatic tattoo • Top layer(s) of skin are rubbed off • Pain, some bleeding, oozing, dirt/debris in the wound • Clean the wound with soap and water, apply antibacterial ointment, cover, watch for infection Athletic injuries

  44. Incisions & Lacerations • Open cut with either smooth or jagged edges • Cut by blunt trauma or sharp object • Bleeding, open wound, pain, shock • Control bleeding, clean wound, pull ends of skin together, send for stitches if necessary Athletic injuries

  45. Lacerations Athletic injuries

  46. Avulsions & Amputations • Body part or skin partially or completely torn away from body • Trauma • May be profuse or little bleeding, body part missing (or partly), shock • Get the missing body part in plastic bag, control bleeding, treat for shock, call 911, ER Athletic injuries

  47. Avulsions Athletic injuries

  48. Puncture • Object is imbedded or impaled in the person • Force to push the object into the body • Little bleeding, object impaled, shock • Leave the object in if in more than ¼ in., control bleeding, Call 911 or send to ER Athletic injuries

  49. Punctures • Very small or large object • Leave in place to prevent further trauma and control bleeding Athletic injuries

  50. Tendinitis • Inflammation of a tendon • Due to overuse • Common sites • Achilles tendon • Biceps tendon • Peroneal tendon