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Athletic Injuries

Athletic Injuries. Connie Rauser ATC Sabino Sports Medicine Class. Injuries. Acute Sudden onset traumatic Chronic Overuse Repetitive activities. Types of injuries. Closed Wounds Skin Musculoskeletal Open Wounds Skin Musculoskeletal. What you need to know. What is the injury?

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Athletic Injuries

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  1. Athletic Injuries Connie Rauser ATC Sabino Sports Medicine Class

  2. Injuries • Acute • Sudden onset • traumatic • Chronic • Overuse • Repetitive activities Athletic injuries

  3. Types of injuries • Closed Wounds • Skin • Musculoskeletal • Open Wounds • Skin • Musculoskeletal Athletic injuries

  4. What you need to know • What is the injury? • What is the mechanism of injury? • How do you recognize the injury? • Signs? • Symptoms? • How do you care for the injury? Athletic injuries

  5. Types of stress that cause injury • Tension • Stretching • Compression • Shearing • Bending Athletic injuries

  6. Tension • A force that pulls or stretches tissue • Example: sprain, strain Athletic injuries

  7. Stretching • Going beyond the “yield” point leading to a rupturing of soft tissue or fracturing a bone • Examples—sprain, strain, avulsion fracture Athletic injuries

  8. Compression • A force with enough energy to crush tissue • Example: arthritic changes, fracture, contusion Athletic injuries

  9. Shearing • A force that moves across the parallel organization of tissue • Example: blister, abrasion, vertebral disk injury Athletic injuries

  10. Bending • A force on the horizontal bone that places stress within the structure causing it to bend • Example: fracture • There can also be torsion or twisting that causes compression and tension in a spiral pattern. Athletic injuries

  11. Closed Wounds • Contusions • Strains • Sprains • Dislocations • Fractures Athletic injuries

  12. Contusions • Also known as bruise or charley horse • Direct blow to the body part • Pain, temporary LOM, bruising or discoloration, swelling • RICE, stretch Athletic injuries

  13. Contusion Athletic injuries

  14. Complications • If not treated properly can develop myositis ossificans • Bony formation within muscle Athletic injuries

  15. Myositis Ossificans Athletic injuries

  16. Myositis Ossificans Athletic injuries

  17. Sprains • Injury to ligaments, also know as “rolling” or “twisting” • Moving the joint beyond the normal range of motion • Pain, swelling, discoloration, LOM • RICE, crutches, immobilization, medical referral Athletic injuries

  18. Degrees of Sprains • 1st degree • overstretching • 2nd degree • Partial tearing • 3rd degree • Complete rupture Athletic injuries

  19. 1st degree sprain • Stretching of ligament • Minimal instability of joint • Mild to moderate pain • Localized swelling (minimal) • Joint stiffness • POT (point tenderness) • Discoloration Athletic injuries

  20. 2nd degree sprain • Partial tearing of ligament • Moderate joint instability • Moderate to severe pain • Swelling • Joint stiffness • POT • Discoloration • Inability to bear weight Athletic injuries

  21. 3rd degree sprain • Complete tearing of ligament • Joint instability • Severe pain initially followed by less pain due to disruption of nerve fibers • Lots of swelling • Discoloration • Joint stiffness • POT Athletic injuries

  22. Complications • Once a ligament is stretched/torn, it heals with inelastic scar tissue which prevents the ligament from regaining its original tension • Ruptured/torn ligaments may require surgery Athletic injuries

  23. Strains • Injury to muscle or tendon—”pulling” • Stretching beyond a normal range or strong muscle contraction • Pain, swelling, discoloration, “divot”, LOM • RICE, crutches, medical referral Athletic injuries

  24. Strains

  25. Degrees of Strains • 1st degree • Overstretching of muscle or tendon • no tearing of tissue • 2nd degree • Partial tearing of muscle or tendon • 3rd degree • Complete tearing or rupture of tissue Athletic injuries

  26. Strains • Signs and symptoms are similar to those of the sprains---it just occurs within the muscle or tendon area Athletic injuries

  27. Strains Athletic injuries

  28. Complications • Scar tissue is not as elastic, may lose some flexibility • Returning too soon can cause reinjury to area • Rehab may take longer than for sprains due to contractile properties of muscles Athletic injuries

  29. Dislocations • Bone ends at a joint are out of place • Joint is stressed beyond its normal boundaries • Obvious deformity, pain, LOM at that joint, shock • Immobilize joint, ice, treat for shock, call 911 or send to ER for reduction Athletic injuries

  30. Dislocations Athletic injuries

  31. Subluxations • Partial or incomplete dislocation • Joint stretched beyond normal ROM • Pain, swelling, LOM • RICE, immobilize if necessary, medical referral Athletic injuries

  32. Fractures • Broken bone • Great force on the bone that moves it or bends it beyond the “break” point • Pain, possible deformity, crepitus, unable or unwilling to move body part, discoloration, swelling • RICE, immobilize, crutches, medical referral Athletic injuries

  33. Kinds of Fractures • Avulsion • Blowout • Comminuted • Compression Athletic injuries

  34. Blowout fracture

  35. Kinds of Fractures • Epiphyseal • Greenstick • Longitudinal Athletic injuries

  36. Kinds of fractures cont’d • Oblique • Pathological • Serrated • Spiral Athletic injuries

  37. Pathological fractures Athletic injuries

  38. Kinds of Fractures • Stress • Transverse Athletic injuries

  39. Kinds of Fractures • A few more photos Athletic injuries

  40. Open Fractures & Dislocations • A break in the bone or the bone ends come out of place • The bone (end) is exposed, may be bleeding, pain, LOM, shock • Cover the exposed bone • Immobilize • Treat for shock • Transport or send to ER Athletic injuries

  41. Fixing the Fracture • Casting • Internal fixation • External Fixation Athletic injuries

  42. Open wounds • Abrasions • Incisions • Lacerations • Avulsions • Amputations • Puncture Athletic injuries

  43. Abrasions • Road rash, strawberry, traumatic tattoo • Top layer(s) of skin are rubbed off • Pain, some bleeding, oozing, dirt/debris in the wound • Clean the wound with soap and water, apply antibacterial ointment, cover, watch for infection Athletic injuries

  44. Incisions & Lacerations • Open cut with either smooth or jagged edges • Cut by blunt trauma or sharp object • Bleeding, open wound, pain, shock • Control bleeding, clean wound, pull ends of skin together, send for stitches if necessary Athletic injuries

  45. Lacerations Athletic injuries

  46. Avulsions & Amputations • Body part or skin partially or completely torn away from body • Trauma • May be profuse or little bleeding, body part missing (or partly), shock • Get the missing body part in plastic bag, control bleeding, treat for shock, call 911, ER Athletic injuries

  47. Avulsions Athletic injuries

  48. Puncture • Object is imbedded or impaled in the person • Force to push the object into the body • Little bleeding, object impaled, shock • Leave the object in if in more than ¼ in., control bleeding, Call 911 or send to ER Athletic injuries

  49. Punctures • Very small or large object • Leave in place to prevent further trauma and control bleeding Athletic injuries

  50. Tendinitis • Inflammation of a tendon • Due to overuse • Common sites • Achilles tendon • Biceps tendon • Peroneal tendon

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