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VALGUS force means the lower part of the tibia moves away from the midline of the body. Common Athletic Injuries. Knee ligament injuries Large and complicated joint that is frequently injured.
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VALGUS force means the lower part of the tibia moves away from the midline of the body Common Athletic Injuries • Knee ligament injuries • Large and complicated joint that is frequently injured. • Heavy hit on lateral side of knee with the foot planted can cause medial collateral ligament tears (MCL tears). • The mechanism of injury is an application of a valgus and rotational stress to the knee – injury is the result of an external force
Common Athletic InjuriesKnee ligament Injuries – Collateral ligament sprains (left), ACL tear (right)
Common Athletic Injuries • ACL damage is usually caused by the joint twisting while engaged in weight bearing activities • Muscle contraction and strength development have often been cited as good ways of protecting against injury
Common Athletic Injuries • Hamstring strains • A hamstring injury is usually associated with running • The hamstring is the most frequently strained hamstring group in the body – reason – hamstring muscles cross two joints (hip and knee), with the hip in extension and the knee in flexion, the hamstrings are particularly lengthened. • Massive deceleration is needed during the late stage of the forward swing stage. • However, some experts say damage is caused when the ‘Quadriceps’ fail to relax sufficiently when the hamstrings contract. • 50-60% Ham/Quad strength ratio should be maintained
Common Athletic Injuries • Lack of hamstring flexibility is another factor associated with this injury • This suggestion is still controversial • Although, hamstring flexibility work is a major part of rehabilitation for this injury
Common Athletic Injuries • Shoulder Dislocation • Fairly common • The shoulder region has four joints, 3 of the 4 can be dislocated or subluxed (partially dislocated) • A dislocation of the glenohumeral joint is the most frequently occurring of any joint in the body
Common Athletic Injuries • Reason – the joint is good for mobility, poor for stability. • When motions such as abduction,external rotation and extension are combined for activities such as throwing a baseball or spiking a v-ball the joint is placed in a vulnerable position
Common Athletic Injuries • Tennis Elbow • Repetitive stress to the extensor tendons around the elbow, particularly where tendons attach to bone called the lateral epicondyle • Mechanisms: Chronic overload of extensor muscles on lateral side of elbow, poor stroke mechanics, and repeated contractions. • Other sufferers include baseball batters, golfers, weight lifters and racquetball players.
Common Athletic Injuries • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • The carpal tunnel is an archway located at the wrist. Through this tunnel pass tendons which flex and extend the fingers • Repetition irritates tissues and they begin to swell. The inflammation and swelling compress the median nerve causing tingling, burning and numbness of the thumb, index, middle and part of the ring finger. • Aggravated by movement • Muscle atrophy can occur if situation isn’t remedied.
Common Athletic Injuries • Injury Prevention • First line defense when dealing with an injury • Ways of preventing injury: a. Strength development – develops pattern of movement that muscles will go through rapidly during games (muscle shortening and lengthening)
Common Athletic Injuries • Injury prevention b. Flexibility – maintains ROM, allows muscles to stretch suddenly during high level sports • PNF – (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) – stretching done in pairs to dampen the stretch reflex
Common Athletic Injuries • Injury prevention • Proprioceptive training • Awareness of body’s position in space • Balance boards, trampoline work, beam work, one legged exercises (balance)
Common Athletic Injuries • Injury Prevention • Muscle imbalance • Leg Asymmetry (different leg lengths) • Alignment Problems – joints not in correct positions • Environmental conditions • Braces, Sports Bras, Protective Equipment, Taping (we will be taping later in the unit) • Inappropriate Exercises – stiff legged deadlifts, hurdler’s stretch, standing press
Common Athletic Injuries • Injury Prevention • Warm up • prerequisite to participation • Enhancement of muscle-tendon unit to stretch • Elevation of body temp. • Increases blood flow and availability of oxygen • Allows antagonist muscle to relax