Characteristics of Short Stories • Limited in length • Limited to one main event and the development of one character Ex: Napoleon Dynomite vs. Breakfast Club
Plot • Sequence of incidents or actions in a story. Whatever the characters do, or whatever happens to them, constitutes plot. • Finding Nemo Plot • http://www.glencoe.com/sec/literature/course/course1/unit/shortstory.shtml
Plot • The most important element in plot is conflict. • External or internal conflict • A story often ends when conflict is resolved but this is not always the case…
Plot Structure Plot is the literary element that describes the structure of a story. It shows the a causal arrangement of events and actions within a story.
Chronological order Flashback In media res (in the middle of things) when the story starts in the middle of the action without exposition Types of Linear Plots Plots can be told in
Pyramid Plot Structure The most basic and traditional form of plot is pyramid-shaped. This structure has been described in more detail by Aristotle and by Gustav Freytag.
Aristotle’s Unified Plot The basic triangle-shaped plot structure was described by Aristotle in 350 BCE. Aristotle used the beginning, middle, and end structure to describe a story that moved along a linear path, following a chain of cause and effect as it works toward the solution of a conflict or crisis.
Freytag’s Plot Structure Freytag modified Aristotle’s system by adding a rising action (or complication) and a falling action to the structure. Freytag used the five-part design shown above to describe a story’s plot.
Modified Plot Structure Freytag’s Pyramid is often modified so that it extends slightly before and after the primary rising and falling action. You might think of this part of the chart as similar to the warm-up and cool-down for the story.
Plot Components Climax: the turning point, the most intense moment—either mentally or in action Rising Action: the series of conflicts and crisis in the story that lead to the climax Falling Action: all of the action which follows the climax Exposition: the start of the story, the situation before the action starts Resolution: the conclusion, the tying together of all of the threads
Conflict Conflict is the dramatic struggle between two forces in a story. Without conflict, there is no plot.
Interpersonal Conflict Human vs Human Human vs Nature Human vs Society Internal Conflict Human vs Self Types of Conflict
Leiningen Versus the Ants • Suspense in the story will result from a person in conflict in nature.
Neighbor Rosicky: Characterizations • How do you arrive to an opinion about a person you don’t know very well?
List the words that come to mind for the following series of photos…(Don’t think about it to much, just your gut reaction)
Stereotyping • What can appearance reveal about a person? • Would it help you if you could know the person’s thoughts? • This is how you establish character in fiction. • Pay attention to how Rosicky’s character is revealed.
Neighbor Rosicky: Characterization • We create opinions based on: • The way someone looks • Someone’s dress • Someone’s background • Stereotypes Pay attention to the “first impressions” we get from Rosicky, and how these evolve.
Symbolism • A symbol is anything that hints at something else, usually something abstract, such as an idea or belief. A literary symbol is an object, a person, a situation, or an action that has a literal meaning in a story but suggests or represents other meanings.
General Symbol? • Define: • Ex:
General Symbolism • A general symbol is universal in its meaning. Even if the symbol were removed from a work of literature, it would still suggest a larger meaning. • Ex: While the sea symbolizes the universal voyage from life to death in The Odyssey, it retains this association independent from literature. The "sea" is a general symbol. • Ex: In poetry, a "rose" often is not only a flower, but also a general symbol for romantic love.
Specific Symbolism • A specific symbol is not universal in its meaning. It acquires a specific meaning based on how it relates to the content of a novel, poem, etc. The symbol's significance exists only within the context created by the author. • Ex: A hunting cap in The Catcher in the Rye has no universal meaning, but within the novel it is worn backwards and symbolizes a looking back at childhood. • Ex: A pair of eyes on a billboard in the Great Gatsby has no universal meaning, but within the story symbolizes the eyes of God watching humanity. • Tips about Symbols: • • The story itself must furnish a clue that a detail is to be taken symbolically. Symbols nearly always signal their existence by emphasis, repetition, or position. • The meaning of a literary symbol must be established and supported by the entire context of
Tips about Symbols • To be called a symbol, an item must suggest a meaning different in kind from its literal meaning; a symbol is something more than its class or type. • A symbol may have more than one meaning. This does not mean that the symbol can mean anything you want it to because possible meanings are always controlled by the context.
Determining what objects are symbolic • To identify a symbol, note if an object seems to: • appear repeatedly • have an unusually vivid quality • be described with language conveying much emphasis • have more significance than its literal reality would suggest
Determine symbolic meanings • Carefully examine how the symbol functions in relation to the story. Ask yourself what idea is represented by the symbol.
Classify the Symbols • Classification may reveal opposite relationships, such as symbols of good and evil, life and death. Or symbols may fall into isolated categories, such as destruction, innocence, or sexuality.
Classify the meanings of a symbol • Determine how much depth a particular symbol has and classify its possible meanings. While you may focus on only one major symbol, you may be able to divide it into two specific meanings and two general meanings.
Remember • Remember: A symbol has a literal meaning in a story but suggests or represents other meanings. • Not all symbolism is obvious; often it is subtle and indirect.
Worksheet • American Beauty: Symbolism
American Beauty Clip: In the clip American Beauty what kind of descriptions are used to describe the plastic bag? What does the plastic bag mean to the male character? Based on the description of the plastic bag and what the plastic bag appears to mean to the male character, what would you predict that the bag symbolizes throughout the film?
General vs. Specific Symbolism Symbolism Reveiw
General Symbol Def. • A general symbol is universal in its meaning. Even if the symbol were removed from a work of literature, it would still suggest a larger meaning
Specific Symbolism A specific symbol is not universal in its meaning. It acquires a specific meaning based on how it relates to the content of a novel, poem, etc. The symbol's significance exists only within the context created by the author.
Specific Symbolism • Definition: • Catcher in the Rye: Backwards hat means to “look back on child hood” • Great Gatsby : Eyes on a billboard, but within the story symbolizes the eyes of God watching humanity. • Odyssey: Sea symbolizes the universal voyage from life to death. • Ashes: The weather symbolizes the events within life: dark clouds, sunshine, ect.
Neighbor Rosicky: Symbolism • The new child of Polly & Rudolph: • The cemetery behind Rosicky’s house: • Rosicky’s land:
Marigolds: Symbolism • Marigolds: • The stone throwing:
The Gift of the Magi: Symbolism • Read “The Gift of the Magi” under class links. • Identify symbols that you see throughout.
The Gift of the Magi: Symbolism • Identify two symbols in the story and what they represent. • Answer the comprehension questions located on the assignment calendar for today. • When completed print and put in in-bin.
Marigolds: Memories • Think about the memories that you have that others remember differently than you. • “Coming of Age” story • Breakfast Club • My Girl • The Wonder Years • Turning point
Marigolds: Making Inferences About Character • Consider how they and others you know have changed over time. • In good fiction characters are complex and make mistakes. • As you read Marigolds you should be making inferences about Lizabeth’s character as a young person and an adult.
Marigolds: Writing • Write an essay about childhood mischief in which you participated. Was it harmless or cruel? Were you influenced by peers? How did you feel then? How do you feel now about the experience? • OR Write an essay about a childhood memory. It could be happy or sad memory, but it should be one that is vivid to you even now. How did you feel then? How do you feel now about the experience. Due 10/7 (Thursday)
The Beginning of Greif: Symbols • Kevin shaves head –
The Beginning of Grief: Writing • In a brief essay (approximately 200-250 words), discuss Corporal Punishment. State your position and support it with both opinion and fact. You may need to research this topic to include facts.
The Rifles of the Regiment: Stock Characters • Stock characters are characters that tend to be types rather than individuals. • Private Detectives • Southern Belle • Girl next door • Cowboy • Marine Sergeant