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Carbs Review

Carbs Review

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Carbs Review

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  1. Carbs Review

  2. What elements are found in carbs? • Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

  3. What is the ratio of C:H:O in a carb? • 1:2:1

  4. Why did scientists name the sugars “carbohydrates?” • Carbo = carbon • Hydrate = 2:1 ratio of H:O just like a water molecule

  5. What do we call the covalent bond that links one monosaccharide to another? • Glycosidic bond

  6. What are the monomers of carbs? • monosaccharides

  7. Name 5 monosaccharides. • Glucose • Fructose • Galactose • Ribose • Deoxyribose

  8. Which monosaccharide is the main source of energy for the cell? • glucose

  9. Cells do not use glucose directly. They convert it into what molecule that is used by the cell for energy? • ATP

  10. What are isomers? • Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas

  11. Give an example of two isomers. • Glucose and fructose (and galactose)

  12. Why are glucose and fructose isomers? • Both are C6H12O6 • Glucose has a 6-sided ring; fructose has a 5-sided ring

  13. What type of reaction joins monosaccharides? • Condensation reaction (aka dehydration synthesis)

  14. What do we call a double sugar? • disaccharide

  15. Sucrose is a disaccharide made of… • Glucose + fructose

  16. Lactose is a disaccharide made of… • Glucose + galactose

  17. Maltose is a disaccharide made of… • Glucose + glucose

  18. Many monosaccharides linked together form a … • polysaccharide

  19. What is the most common monosaccharide that makes up polysaccharides? • glucose

  20. How do animals store excess glucose? • Link it together in condensation reactions to form glycogen

  21. Where is glycogen stored? • Liver and muscles

  22. What type of reaction is performed in liver and muscle cells when glucose must be freed from glycogen? • hydrolysis

  23. How do plants store excess glucose? • starch

  24. Starch has two structures. What are they? • Spiral chain • Branched chain

  25. Which carb is the most abundant on earth? • cellulose

  26. Cellulose is not an energy polysaccharide. It is a __________ carbohydrate. • structural

  27. Cellulose is made up of chains of glucoses. One chain is held to the next by what type of bond? • hydrogen

  28. Lipids

  29. What elements are found in lipids? • Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

  30. Lipids have large numbers of ____ and ____ but few ____. • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen

  31. True or false? Lipids are better at storing energy because they have larger numbers of carbon-hydrogen bonds. • True! We just said that lipids have few oxygens. This means there are more hydrogens bonded to carbons. C-H bonds store energy!

  32. There are six main functions of lipids. Name three. • Energy storage • Vitamin storage • Insulation • Padding and shape • Chemical messengers • Structural part of the cell membrane

  33. There are two common monomers in lipids. What are they? • Glycerol • Fatty acids

  34. Sometimes lipid polymers do not have the common monomers, so why do we still consider them lipids? • They’re nonpolar!

  35. The fatty acid monomer has two parts. What are they? • Carboxyl end • Hydrocarbon end

  36. Glycerol + 3 fatty acids ? • Triglyceride + water

  37. How many water molecules are formed in the condensation of a triglyceride? • 3

  38. Glycerol + 2 fatty acids ? • Diglyceride + 2 water molecules

  39. Glycerol + 1 fatty acids ? • Monoglyceride + 1 water

  40. What do we call a fat with double or triple bonds in the hydrocarbon portion of the fatty acid? • unsaturated

  41. Unsaturated fats have _______ chains and are ________ at room temp. • Bent • Liquids

  42. Where are unsaturated fats naturally found? • Oils in plants like olive oil

  43. What effect do unsaturated fats have on cholesterol? • No effect

  44. What do we call fats with all single bonds in the hydrocarbon portion of the fatty acid chains? • Saturated fats

  45. Saturated fats have _______ chains and are ______ at room temp. • Straight • Solid

  46. Where are saturated fats normally found? • In animals or animal products like lard and cream

  47. What effect do saturated fats have on cholesterol? • Increase it!

  48. Hydrogenation converts _________ fats into _________ fats. • Unsaturated • Saturated

  49. Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate ? • phospholipid

  50. Draw a phospholipid and label the parts. head tails