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Molecular Biology

Molecular Biology

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Molecular Biology

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  1. Molecular Biology

  2. Head Fig. 10-1a DNA Tail Tail fiber

  3. Radioactive protein Empty protein shell Phage Radioactivity in liquid Bacterium Phage DNA DNA Batch 1 Radioactive protein Fig. 10-1b Centrifuge Pellet Agitate in a blender to separate phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. Centrifuge the mixture so bacteria form a pellet at the bottom of the test tube. Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the bacterial cells. 2 3 4 Measure the radioactivity in the pellet and the liquid. 1 Radioactive DNA Batch 2 Radioactive DNA Centrifuge Radioactivity in pellet Pellet

  4. DNA Structure

  5. Fig. 10-3b

  6. Fig. 10-3a

  7. Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) Phosphate group Fig. 10-2aa Thymine (T) Sugar (deoxyribose)

  8. Fig. 10-2b Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) Adenine (A) Pyrimidines Purines

  9. Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or U) Phosphate group Fig. 10-2c Uracil (U) Sugar (ribose)

  10. Base pair Fig. 10-3da Ribbon model

  11. Fig. 10-4a-3 Nucleotides Parental molecule of DNA Both parental strands serve as templates Two identical daughter molecules of DNA

  12. DNA replication occurs during S phase of the Cell Cycle

  13. Fig. 10-4b

  14. 3 end 5 end P 5 2 4 3 3 1 1 4 2 5 P Fig. 10-5b P P P P P P 5 end 3 end

  15. Parental strand Origin of replication Daughter strand Fig. 10-5a Bubble Two daughter DNA molecules

  16. DNA polymerase molecule 3 5 Daughter strand synthesized continuously Parental DNA 5 3 Daughter strand synthesized in pieces Fig. 10-5c 3 5 5 3 DNA ligase Overall direction of replication

  17. Protein Synthesis occurs during G0, G1 and G2 of the cell cycle

  18. DNA Transcription Fig. 10-6a-3 RNA Nucleus Cytoplasm Translation Protein

  19. DNA strand Transcription Fig. 10-7a RNA Codon Translation Polypeptide Amino acid

  20. RNA polymerase DNA of gene Promoter DNA Terminator DNA 1 Initiation Fig. 10-9b Area shown in Figure 10.9A 2 Elongation Growing RNA 3 Termination Completed RNA RNA polymerase

  21. Second base Fig. 10-8a First base Third base

  22. Growing polypeptide tRNA molecules Large subunit Fig. 10-12a mRNA Small subunit

  23. Next amino acid to be added to polypeptide Fig. 10-12c Growing polypeptide tRNA mRNA Codons

  24. Amino acid Polypeptide A site P site Anticodon mRNA Codons 1 Codon recognition Fig. 10-14-4 mRNA movement Stop codon Peptide bond formation 2 New peptide bond Translocation 3

  25. Mutations

  26. Normal hemoglobin DNA Mutant hemoglobin DNA Fig. 10-16a mRNA mRNA Sickle-cell hemoglobin Normal hemoglobin Glu Val

  27. Plasmodium falciparum

  28. Normal gene mRNA Protein Lys Met Phe Ala Gly Fig. 10-16b Base substitution Lys Met Phe Ala Ser Base deletion Missing Lys Met Leu His Ala