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Social Psychology

Social Psychology

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Social Psychology

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Social Psychology • Basic premise: Who we are is determined by our social interactions • --Past: our social development • --Present: social influence We’ll start with an area of overlap between cognition and social influence; attitudes, and the drive toward attitude consistency

  2. Strong Generalization About Attitudes We like to maintain consistancy of attitudes: • selective exposure • selective interpretation • selective memory

  3. Stronger Theories of Attitude Consistency • Balance Theory (Heider) • Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) • Self Perception Theory (Bem)

  4. Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Leon Festinger: Two cognitions that are in conflict or dissonant (one implies the opposite of the other) result in pressure to change one or both to bring them into consonance • In practice, the two are an attitude and a behavior and the attitude changes

  5. Three types of Dissonance Situations or Experiments • Justification of effort (Aronson & Mills) • Inadequate external justification --when prophecy fails (Ms. Keech) --counterattitudinal advocacy (Yale) • Consequences of a decision (Brehm)

  6. Knox & Inkster betting study (consequences of making a decision)

  7. Self Perception Theory- Bem • The theory and its relation to cog. diss. • Experimental evidence (Bem, Valins) • Can we know ourselves given all this? • (Back to Missouri!)

  8. Emotion and Self-Perception • Emotions involve both bodily activation (brain-endocrine) and precipitating stimuli • Naïve view: perception of p-stimuli causes us to feel a certain way-->activates body • James-Lange view: p-stim. causes physiological arousal--> perceived emotion • Cognitive theory: p-stim. + physiol. arousal --> perceived emotional state

  9. Social Influence (continued): some dangerous findings Bystandar Apathy Conformity Obedience

  10. Bystander Apathy & Intervention • Surprising work of Darley & Latane on the effect of the no. of bystanders

  11. Mechanisms That Produce Bystander Apathy Effects • moral diffusion • lack of clarity--ambiguity of interp. and of action. airport/subway crutch--fall 83 vs. 41 % helped, and they were people more familiar with the surround. 3. costs of intervention. sometimes they are raised bythe presence of others (surveillance) 4. rules for behaving: don't stare, unless you know what to do/day, keep your mouth shut etc. 5) mood: Isen dime in coin slot mailing letter 10-->90 %

  12. Solomon Asch: Conformity • Conformity: Good or bad? • Major findings: 1/3 & 2/3 conform! • What it takes to resist! • Conclusion

  13. Stanley Milgram: Obedience • Description of Experiment • Basic findings 2/3 • Field theory explanation (exper. vs. victim force fields)

  14. Underlying Explanation • Foot in the door • Other is responsible (diffusion of resp.) • Aloneness- lack of social support • Ambiguity about situation/what to do!!! • Other directedness (Reisman)

  15. Schein’s POW Work • Level of compliance and how it was obtained • The power of social isolation • Who resisted? • Solution: inner codes vs. external or situational control • Conclusion: balance?……