Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Social Psychology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Social Psychology

Social Psychology

189 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Social Psychology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

    1. Social Psychology Chapter 1- Introduction to Social Psychology

    2. A Brief History Early Social Psychological Experiments Triplett (1897): Bicyclists and nervous energy Winding fishing reels- alone vs. side by side Social Facilitation Ringelmann (1880s): Individual effort in Tug of War competitions- alone vs. part of a group Social Loafing

    3. A Brief History (continued) 1908- First books published with the title Social Psychology Edward Ross (sociologist) William McDougall (psychologist) 1924- First Social Psychology textbook (Floyd Allport) Early 20th Century Foundational Ideas Attitudes as an essential concept (Gordon Allport) Behavior = Person + Situation (Kurt Lewin)

    4. A Brief History (continued) World War II and its aftermath (1940s-50s) Attitudes & Persuasion (Carl Houvland) Attitudes & Behavioral Consistency (Festinger) 1960s The Rise of the Selfand Self-Esteem The Situationist Challenge Late 1970s The cognitive revolution Social Cognition movement 1980s Resurgence of research on group conflict Race and Ethnicity, Prejudice and Stereotyping

    5. What is Social Psychology? Seinfeld Studies A story about nothingness Emphasizes Normative Psychological Functioning

    6. What is Social Psychology? (contd) Formal Definitions The study of how individuals thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others, either real or imagined (Gordon Allport) The study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. (David Myers- your text author) 1. Social Thinking 2. Social Influence 3. Social Relations

    7. Perspectives on Research in Social Psychology Traditionally Divided into 3 Broad Topic Areas 1. Social Thinking (e.g., self & attribution processes, self-concept) 2. Social Influence (e.g., stereotyping & prejudice, conformity) 3. Social Relations (e.g., attraction & close relationships) Distinguishing among the topic areas: Emphasis on factors/processes internal to the individual or the broader social context Internal Factors (The Person) External Factors (The Situation) Levels of Analysis Intrapersonal Level (Social Thinking) Intergroup Level (Social Influence) Interpersonal Level (Social Relations)

    8. Perspectives on Research in Social Psychology (contd) The A,B,Cs of Psychological Functioning: Affect (emotions, moods, motives, attitudes, etc.) Behavior (verbal & nonverbal physical actions) Cognition (mental activities- e.g., thoughts, focus of attention and awareness, memory functioning)

    9. A, B, C Connections

    10. Perspectives on Research in Social Psychology (contd) The A, B, Cs reflect parts of a dynamic system that are intimately linked with one another other. Often looks at specific links in A,B,C relationships Causal Influences (A ? B) Reciprocal Influences (A ? B)

    11. Perspectives on Research in Social Psychology What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    12. Perspectives on Research in Social Psychology Intertwines 2 psychological perspectives Personality Social Psychology Research Journals Journal of Personality and Social Psychology http://www.apa.org/journals/psp/ Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin http://www.spsp.org/pspb.htm Organizations Social Psychology Network*** http://www.socialpsychology.org/ The Society for Personality & Social Psychology http://www.spsp.org/ The Society of Experimental Social Psychology http://www.sesp.org/

    13. What Are Social Psychologys Big Lessons? We construct our social reality Our social intuitions are often powerful but sometimes perilous Social influences shape our behavior Personal attitudes and dispositions also shape behavior Social behavior is also biological behavior Social psychology principles are applicable to everyday life and other disciplines

    14. Is Social Psychology Just Common Sense? Hindsight bias The tendency to exaggerate, after learning an outcome, ones ability to have foreseen it the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon

    15. Two General Categories of Studies in Social Psychological Research Correlational Detecting Natural Associations Observational Studies Naturalistic Laboratory Surveys Questionnaires Interviews Concerns of Correlational designs Question wording Third variables Social Desirability

    16. Understanding Correlations Relays 2 vital pieces of information The strength, size, or magnitude of association between two variables Scores can range anywhere from 0 to 1 Zero Relationships (r = .00 or is ~ .00) indicate that the two variables are unrelated, random, or have a non-systematic relationship. The higher the value of r (whether it is + or -) the stronger the relationship is. The nature, type, direction of the relationship between two variables Positive Correlations- Scores tend to both increase and decrease in harmony with one another (e.g., as values of X increase so to do Y values) Negative Correlations- Scores tend to reflect opposite positions (e.g., as X values increase Y values decrease)

    17. Understanding Correlations What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    18. Understanding Correlations What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    19. Understanding Correlations What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    20. Two General Categories of Studies in Social Psychological Research Experimental Designs To determine causation Control Random Assignment Concerns: Placebo Effects Demand Characteristics Solutions Single and double-blind procedures To determine causation Control & Random Assignment Control experimenter controls all variables (actively manipulates one or a few) Random Assignment Ss have equal chance of being in either control or Experimental group these differ only in who gets treatment Concerns: Placebo Effects effects due to study itself Ex: Ss given a sugar pill also have decreased depression because they expect to get better Demand Characteristics Ex: Ss modify behavior because they know they are being studied (Hawthorne effect) Solutions Single and double-blind procedures neither subjects (nor experimenter) knows who gets experimental treatment. To determine causation Control & Random Assignment Control experimenter controls all variables (actively manipulates one or a few) Random Assignment Ss have equal chance of being in either control or Experimental group these differ only in who gets treatment Concerns: Placebo Effects effects due to study itself Ex: Ss given a sugar pill also have decreased depression because they expect to get better Demand Characteristics Ex: Ss modify behavior because they know they are being studied (Hawthorne effect) Solutions Single and double-blind procedures neither subjects (nor experimenter) knows who gets experimental treatment.

    21. Understanding Experiments What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    22. Social Psychology Experiments: Schacter (1959)

    23. Understanding Experiments What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    24. Things to Consider in Social Psychological Research Theory Hypothesis Population Sample Representative sample Random sample Random Assignment Blind Procedures Independent variable Dependent variable Survey Placebo Effects Third variables Causation Reliability Validity Design a Study Exercise Design a Group Study Exercise Spend three minutes reviewing and modifying your own ideas. Get in groups of 6 (1 person is elected note taker/master organizer) Each person takes 1 2 minutes to present ideas to group (Organizer takes notes) Group discusses each idea AFTER all have been presented Decide on 1 study that is reasonable for group study (and doable) Develop idea further, focusing on the following: Develop a hypothesis Does this fit with any theory (personal or scientific) ask me for help here Identify population, samples, independent and dependent variables, Are measures valid? Can we determine reliability of measures? What are the benefits and costs of this method? Is this Ethical? What must you worry about (wording, third variables, placebo)? What can you conclude (scientifically speaking)? Why should anyone care about these results? Put on Post paper in the following format Introduction i. Background theory development ii. Hypothesis Methods i. Participants ii. Materials iii. Procedure Results i. What you expect (use a graph or table) Discussion i. Conclusions ii. Concerns iii. ImplicationsDesign a Study Exercise Design a Group Study Exercise Spend three minutes reviewing and modifying your own ideas. Get in groups of 6 (1 person is elected note taker/master organizer) Each person takes 1 2 minutes to present ideas to group (Organizer takes notes) Group discusses each idea AFTER all have been presented Decide on 1 study that is reasonable for group study (and doable) Develop idea further, focusing on the following: Develop a hypothesis Does this fit with any theory (personal or scientific) ask me for help here Identify population, samples, independent and dependent variables, Are measures valid? Can we determine reliability of measures? What are the benefits and costs of this method? Is this Ethical? What must you worry about (wording, third variables, placebo)? What can you conclude (scientifically speaking)? Why should anyone care about these results? Put on Post paper in the following format Introduction i. Background theory development ii. Hypothesis Methods i. Participants ii. Materials iii. Procedure Results i. What you expect (use a graph or table) Discussion i. Conclusions ii. Concerns iii. Implications

    25. The Research Process What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?

    26. The Research Process What does it mean if two variables are correlated?What does it mean if two variables are correlated?