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Social Psychology

Social Psychology

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Social Psychology

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    1. Social Psychology Chapter 13 Conflict & Peacemaking

    2. Conflict Faces of the enemy (video) A perceived incompatibility of actions or goals Once again, perception is key Conflict occurs on A personal level (between two people) A global level (between countries) All levels in between (groups)

    3. Conflicts as Caused by Social Dilemmas Social dilemmas: Tragedy of the commons Occur when we pursue our self-interests ? collective problems for everybody E.g.: As individuals, we dont consider the impact of driving gas guzzling cars Cumulatively, it is leading to a worldwide shortage of oil E.g.: As individuals, we dont think about how we each contribute to global warming

    4. Resolving Social Dilemmas Laws and regulations Have been implemented to reduce Air pollution Hunting of endangered species (so as to prevent the destruction of ecosystems) The amount of natural resources destroyed (e.g. rainforests) or used up (water conservation)

    5. Resolving Social Dilemmas When possible, make groups small The less people in the group, the more responsible each person will feel Small food supply available Few people ration it better; we can identify with each other, forming a sense of we Big group ? theres not enough for all of us anyway ? Ill grab what I can

    6. Resolving Social Dilemmas Communicate with each other Helps create a group identity Allows for the development of norms and expectations Breeds trust ? betterment of the group Mistrust ? sense others wont cooperate ? I wont cooperate (I have to get what I can before others get it all) ? further mistrust

    7. Resolving Social Dilemmas Change the payoff Find a way to make cooperating more beneficial than ones self-interests E.g.: In Chicago, they are hoping to reduce traffic at tollbooths by making it cheaper to use I-Pass than to use coins Payoffless traffic backup ? getting where youre going faster

    8. Resolving Social Dilemmas Appeal to altruistic norms via communication Use guilt If you dont agree to do this with us think of how youll feel Appeal to their sense of fairness Do you really want to act to benefit yourself when everyone else is working together for the benefit of the group

    9. Resolving Social Dilemmas Altruistic behaviors Behaviors that will bring harm (of some sort) to the individual in hopes that the larger group will benefit E.g.: Gay pride marchers suffered ridicule and abuse so that other members of the homosexual community could gain a greater degree of acceptance Rosa Parks bus ride

    10. Competition Competition can lead to hostile behavior Discuss Sherifs The Robbers Cave Experiment Competition can produce Strong ingroup feelings but negative outgroup feelings As group size increases, so does the level of competitiveness ? hostile behavior Remember the effects of group polarization

    11. Perceived Injustice When the perception is that My outcomes/my inputs = your outcomes/your inputs, there should be no conflict (equity) When the perception is that they are not equal, injustice can lead to conflict If it unequal in your favorwell, thats ok (but the other person may cause conflict) If unequal in someone elses favorHey, thats not fair. Whats up with that?

    12. Perceived Injustice We dont go out of our way to be favored But when it happens, we tend to accept the unequal treatment We tend to rationalize the unequal treatment, especially if were not sure why we benefited more (it relieves guilt) Well, all things considered, I do work harder than them. Thats why I got a bigger bonus

    13. Perceived Injustice The reactions of the exploited Can accept and rationalize the inequity Well, I guess I got what I deserved. Heck, I was lucky to get this much May demand compensation Its unfair and something needs to be done about it May retaliate Next time Ill cut the pie. Well see what size piece you get then.

    14. Perceived Injustice Today, women have more professional opportunities than ever before Yet, they feel more unequal in status They used to compare themselves to other women (as they shared the same kinds of work) Now, women compare themselves to women and men Still have problems getting equal pay for equal work Still expected to do most of the housework, childrearing, etc.

    15. Misperception Misperceptions can breed conflict due to Self-justifying/self-serving behaviors I got more because I deserve more Fundamental attribution error You took more because youre evil and selfish Groupthink and group polarization I know well all agree that we should do this I think we deserve some moreI think we deserve a lot moreetc.

    16. Misperception Mirror-image perceptions Those we are in conflict with tend to view us as we view them Group 1 thinks group 2 is manipulative, selfish, and deceitful, yet thinks good things about itself Group 2 thinks that group 1 is manipulative, selfish and deceitful, yet thinks good things about itself Yet, when the other group engages in a similar behavior, we view it differently (more hostile)

    17. Misperception The problem with mirror-image perceptions is that they can lead to a vicious circle Fred thinks Barney is acting selfishly when it comes to food. Barney thinks the same about Fred. Because of his belief about Barney, Fred starts hoarding food. Barney finds out Fred is hoarding food, which confirms his suspicions about Fred. Now Barney hoards food Thankfully, the Great Gazoo magically makes more food for Wilma, Betty, Pebbles and Bam Bam

    18. Misperception Another problem with mirror image perceptions is that they lead to exaggerated beliefs We tend to overestimate the other sides view, seeing it as more extreme than it is We only want whats fair. They want it all. We also believe that our facts and information are correct whereas they manipulate the facts Think back to the 2000 election mess

    19. Misperception Shifting perceptions There is a tendency to shift perceptions, depending on how the wind blows Many viewed France as an ally, until they would not support the U.S. and British position on Iraq We used to arm and support Saddam Hussein when he was fighting Iran. My, how times have changed

    20. Peacemaking: Making Nice-Nice Social psychologist have focused on 4 main techniques to help turn enemies into friends The 4 Cs of peacemaking Contact Cooperation Communication Conciliation

    21. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Contact We have previously established that proximity, mere exposure and interaction lead to liking Given that, shouldnt desegregation bring about less prejudicial behaviors? Sometimes it does, sometimes it doesnt

    22. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Contact Factors that improve attitudes among differing groups The amount of contact The more contact you have, the more youll see that your stereotypical beliefs are wrong I thought all Black people liked watermelon. I guess I was wrong The more contact you have, the more likely you are to become friends ? positive attitudes

    23. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Contact Factors that improve attitudes among differing groups For contact to improve attitudes, it must be equal-status contact Relationships formed between people of similar status can help to change attitudes Notice similarities ? we feelings Relationships formed between people of unequal status perpetuate stereotypical beliefs

    24. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Contact While contact can improve relations, its not always enough Remember, impressions can be long-lasting As a result, contact between rival groups can bring more conflict This can further ingrain your belief that you were right about them

    25. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Cooperation Cooperating against common external threats brings us closer Dont people who are facing the same threat or injustice band together? Werent people, for the most part, friendlier to each other (for awhile) after 9/11/01? People who live in communities ridden with drugs, prostitution, etc. band together to form neighborhood watch groups

    26. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Cooperation Working toward superordinate goals can helps unify us, if the outcome is positive Def.: A shared goal that can only be overcome through cooperation Sherif used these types of goals to unite the Rattlers and Eagles Moving a truck that had broken down, fixing the camp water supply ? breakdown of we and them ? formation of us

    27. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Cooperation Working toward superordinate goals can cause greater conflict, if the outcome is negative Had the Rattlers and Eagles not succeeded in fixing the water supply, moving the truck, etc. they likely would have Blamed each other for the failures ? greater conflict

    28. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Cooperation Uniting through cooperative learning Students placed in racially mixed learning teams developed more positive racial attitudes Became more more motivated to Work together Help each other Support each other View themselves as we Same holds true for other types of diverse backgrounds (disabled, academic, ethnic, etc.)

    29. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Cooperation Overall benefits of cooperative learning Promotes academic achievement Improves intergroup relations of those from diverse backgrounds Improves self-esteem Promotes liking and cross-racial friendships Lessens prejudicial attitudes

    30. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Settling conflicts by use of bargaining Occurs when conflicting sides meet with each other to negotiate an agreement Sometimes demanding more gets you more If you take an extreme position, and the other side wants to settle, your side may benefit Sometimes demanding more backfires If both sides are equally determined to win, negotiations can drag on, causing both sides to lose

    31. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Settling conflicts by use of mediation A neutral third party is brought in an attempt to further communication and offer suggestions Helps bring about a win/win situation (vs. win/lose) Primary goal of the mediator is to get both sides to consider the others Needs Interests Goals

    32. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Settling conflicts by use of mediation Use of mediation can lead to integrative agreements (a win-win resolution) Leads to mutual satisfaction Promotes longer lasting relationships E.g.: You got what you want and I got what I want. We should do business together more often

    33. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Communicating also helps breakdown misperceptions Allows us to see the other sides point of view I can see how you would feel that way Open communication can also bring about feelings of trust Given that, I can tell you are telling the truth

    34. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Steps to mediation Change win/lose attitude to win/win Have each side rank their goals Allows you to point out commonalities Allows for concession on lesser goals, which shows the sides they can make progress Help both sides understand the others position Restrict arguments to factual information Have them role play the oppositions side

    35. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Steps to mediation Offer proposals that are mutually beneficial More likely to be accepted when offered by a third party than if offered by one of the involve parties Could lead to what are they trying to get out of this thinking Start small and work your way up Minor concessions ? agreement ? good faith ? agreement on bigger issues

    36. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Communication Arbitration Resolving a conflict by using a third party; both sides agree to accept the findings Studies both sides arguments Makes a binding decision The threat of arbitration often gets both sides to soften their positions and reach a settlement on their own Few like to be told what to do/leave things to chance

    37. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Conciliation GRIT Graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction A technique used to de-escalate tensions Put simply, it is a technique whereby sides, at an impasse, decide to Announce a concession Make the concession Wait for the other side to reciprocate

    38. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Conciliation GRIT: An example that kept the peace The Cuban Missile Crisis Russia was putting missiles in Cuba We were going to go to war to have them removed The world was on the brink of nuclear annihilation (averted by about 2 days) Russia said they would pull out missiles We said well pull out missiles located near Russia Both sides took steps to pull out missiles

    39. PeacemakingMaking Nice: Conciliation GRIT: An example that didnt keep the peace The War with Iraq (WMD ? War) Bush: Destroy WMD and theres no need for war Hussein: Ill get rid of WMD Hussein: Noncompliance (inaction) Bush: Step down and therell be no need for war Hussein: Im not going anywhere Result ? War and Husseins removal from power