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Social Psychology

Social Psychology

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Social Psychology

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  1. Interpersonal Attraction Social Psychology Behavioural attributions in self and others Attitude formation Effect of the group on the individual

  2. Interpersonal Attraction What determines your liking/disliking of someone? 1) Similarity of personality and attitudes 2) Physical attractiveness 3) If they like us, or at least, start off disliking then liking us 4) If we have low self-esteem 5) Familiarity 6) First impressions

  3. Attribution Processes For others: Fundamental Attribution Error (but occasionally the discounting principle) For yourself: Self-serving bias

  4. Attitude Formation Formal communication: -source of the message -message itself Theories of attitude change 1) Balance Theory 2) Cognitive dissonance: when behaviour and attitudes/knowledge are at odds -e.g. Smoking -what can you do? -alter behaviour, find cognitive support for behaviour, or change opinion -boring study, grasshopper-eating study

  5. Group Behaviour -in competition: Triplett (1897) -when cooperating: social loafing -with an audience: it depends... -Zajonc settles things -when in the audience: bystander intervention -pluralistic ignorance -diffusion of responsibility Popular explanation for why we do this: social comparison theory -normative function: we follow the group to fit in, or not look dumb -comparative function: we look to the group for information about ambiguous situations

  6. The effect of the group on bystanders even applies when individual is threatened with harm (smoke study)

  7. What about overt activity? Asch line length study

  8. Social roles as defined by the group Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment (1974) -the setup: -ads placed on Stanford University campus, for a 2-week study they would be paid $15/day to participate in -students who answered were randomly assigned to be a guard or a prisoner -study began with a real police officer showing up at the “prisoners” houses and arresting them

  9. Behaviour influenced by an authority figure Milgram’s obedience study -people are less conforming today, aren’t they? -what is your evidence? -Milgram was successfully replicated in 2009 -I could argue people might conform more (video games) -what were you laughing at?

  10. Cults

  11. Group brainwashing Moonies Scientology Army 1st stage softens you up: -sleep deprivation -love bombing -under-isolation -physical exertion -peer pressure -milieu control 2nd stage: ego manipulation -mystical manipulation & sense of superiority -need for purity -confession -loading the language -doctrine over individuals