Finishing Prejudice • Video on school cliques • Colored Doll Experimenthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WG7U1QsUd1g&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQACkg5i4AY&feature=fvsr • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ul1xsDwNeuo
Categorizing Race • On the following slide, there are 20 photos of people. On a separate sheet of paper, categorize them into the 5 racial categories currently recognized by the U.S.: • American Indian, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic/Latino, and White. • There may only be 4 in each category. • Identify people using the letter/number grid system.
A B C D E 1 2 3 4
On the following slide are the “answers,” as they are self-reported by the people in the picture.
American Indian: C2, C4, D2, D3 • Asian/Pacific Islander: E2, B2, D1, B3 • Black: A2, D4, E1, E4 • Hispanic/Latino: A1, B1, B4, C3 • White: E3, A3, C1, A4
What criteria did you use to categorize? • What was the hardest part about this activity?
Attraction What factors increase the chance that people will like one another?
if they are similar to us (similarity) • we have frequent contact with them (proximity) • those that return our positive feelings (reciprocal liking) • those we share intimate and personal information with (self-disclosure)
Effects of Personal Appearance • The attractiveness bias • physically attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, morality • studies • teachers rate attractive children as smarter, and higher achieving • adults attribute cause of unattractive child’s misbehavior to personality, attractive child’s to situation • judges give longer prison sentences to unattractive people
Effects of Personal Appearance • The baby-face bias • people with rounder heads, large eyes, small jawbones, etc. rated as more naïve, honest, helpless, kind, and warm than mature-faced • generalize to animals, women, babies
Dear Abby • Complete the worksheet on Dear Abby using the principles we just talked about.
My research • TOS • TRIOS • Stereotype Threat • Condom Study • Face Shape
Your Turn • Take the Temporal Orientation Scale
Correlations • Past Oriented People: • High correlation with depression • Negative correlation with joviality, self-assurance, well-being, self-esteem, • High correlation with REGRETS
Present Oriented People • High correlation with “Mastery of the Environment” • High correlation with self-esteem, well-being, acceptance, and SOMETIMES with regrets • Very low correlation with depression
Future Oriented People • High correlation with self-assurance, and LAST WEEK regrets. • NO Correlation with autonomy, self-esteem, and mastery of the environment • HOWEVER, high correlation with GPA and standardized tests.
Cultural Orientation • The United States has a much higher preoccupation with future orientation. Many other cultures are present oriented. Their sense of “time” can be very different. • “Island time”
Regret • Research has found that when looking back on their lives, people regret INACTION more than ACTION. • When looking back in the past week, people regret ACTION rather than INACTION.
Compliance Strategies are methods of getting others to comply with one’s wishes.
Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon. • It suggests that if you can get people to agree to a small request first, they are more likely to agree to a follow-up request that is larger.
"Can I go over to Suzy's house for an hour?" followed by "Can I stay the night?" • "Can I borrow the car to go to the store?" followed by "Can I borrow the car for the weekend?" • "Would you sign this petition for our cause?" followed by "Would you donate to our cause?" • "May I turn in the paper a few hours late?" followed by "May I turn it in next week?"
Door-In-The-Face Phenomenon • Strategy marked by first making an extremely large request that the respondent will obviously turn down. The respondent is then more likely to agree to a second, more reasonable request.
Will you donate $1000 to our organization? Oh. Well could you donate $10?'' • Can you help me do all this work?Well can you help me with this bit?''
Another common strategy is known as the Norms of Reciprocity. People tend to think that when someone does something nice for them, they ought to do something nice in return.
IE. You feel compelled to send money to the charity organization that sent you the free address labels in the mail, or to vote for the candidate that handed out the delicious chocolate chip cookies.
Come up with an advertisement… • Come up with a product you want to sell • Use ALL THREE techniques (separate your paper into 3) • Star the one you believe will work best • Groups of 2-3
You’re in a college library, observing two workers attempting to move a rather large filing cabinet. In unison, the two workers lift up the cabinet. All four doors fly open and the files spill out. What’s your first thought?
Attribution Theory tries to explain how people determine the cause of what they observe.
Dispositional Attribution • We when observe other people’s behaviors, we believe that their success or failure is due to their long history of personal success or failure. The individual is given the credit or blame for the outcome.
The files fell out because the workers are dimwits. The files fell out because the workers weren’t strong enough. The files fell out because the workers were unable to balance the cabinet. The workers were inexperienced in this type of work.
Situational Attribution • If you believe that a person’s success or failure is due to a consistently easy or difficult surrounding situation or environment. Something outside of the individual’s control has led to their success or failure.
The files fell out because the locks on the cabinets broke. The files fell out because a student bumped into one of the workers and caused it to tip. The bright light from an overhead bulb blinded a worker and disoriented him. The floor must have been recently waxed and was slippery.
Come up with a situation of your own, and explain how someone might think it is: • Situational Attribution • Dispositional Attribution
You go to a party and start up a conversation with someone you haven’t met before. They don’t talk much, gaze around the room rather than look directly at you, and excuse themselves abruptly. You first thought about them is….
Most of you probably said, “What a jerk”, right? • Did you consider that maybe they were just really shy, or that they just broke up with their significant other, or that maybe they were distracted by a minor car accident they had on the way to the party?
When looking at the behaviors of others, people tend to overestimate the importance of personal factors, and underestimate the role of the environment. This is called the fundamental attribution error.
The tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them is called the false consensus effect.
IE. If Brianna hates Psychology, she assumes that most people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Savanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.
Self-serving bias is the tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than for bad ones, and vise-versa.
IE. A star athlete will acknowledge that his fourth quarter touchdown won the game. The same athlete will point out that a tough loss was a team loss, and that everyone must step up their game the next time. He won’t admit that his dropped pass in the endzone lost the game.
When attributing successes or failures, people tend to believe that bad things will happen to bad people, and that good things will happen to good people. This is called the just-world belief.