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Colonial Areas Throwing off the Yolk…

Colonial Areas Throwing off the Yolk…

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Colonial Areas Throwing off the Yolk…

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  1. Colonial Areas Throwing off the Yolk…

  2. Why were the colonial nations able to throw off the Western Powers? • World War II • Exposure to Nationalism • Pan-Africanism • Not Economic Necessity for Western powers • Even white Afrikaans see themselves as separate from Europe.

  3. Asian Independence • Asia divided into two areas politically • West Asia (Middle East, Iran) • East Asia (India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Korea) • Western Asia is partitioned according to the requirements of Western powers. • Example - Israel • East Asia is fought over as a battle ground of the containment policy of the US • Example - Vietnam

  4. Case Study: Israel • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FspfOI_YRU&feature=related • Post WWII, Jews fled to Cyprus – illegal to go to Palestine • Zionists push and Israel created out of parts of Palestine in 1947 by the British and the UN • Civil War (or Israeli War of Independence) began immediately after Brits left. • British officially stayed out and encouraged an arms embargo to both areas. • What has this led to…

  5. Constant Conflict • Sinai Conflict – 1956 • Six Day War – 1967 • War of Attrition – 1969 • Munich Terrorism – 1972 • Yom Kippur War – 1973 • Camp David Accords – 1978 • Second Lebanese War - 2006 • Constant fights between the Palestine Liberation Organization in Israel up to today.

  6. Case Study: Vietnam • Originally French Indochina prior to WWII. • As soon as WWII ended 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares independence of Vietnam. • French try to stop Viet Minh (Commies) • Dien Bien Phu – 1954 • Geneva Accords in 1954 – divides country at 17th parallel

  7. Fall of Dien Bien Phu • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=th7tImvzutc

  8. US Gets Involved • Communists in north under Ho Chi Minh • Democrats in south under Ngo Dinh Diem • Diem was a terrible leader and was executed in 1963. • From 1957-1963 the US continued to put more troops and money into the area. • Vietnam escalated as Kennedy and Johnson decided to put a line in the sand.

  9. From 1965 on, it all falls apart for US • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • TET offensive • Ho Chi Minh Trail • Nixon’s illegal incursions into Cambodia and Laos • Anti-War Movement

  10. Why Africa is different than Asia • African never had anything developed there but agriculture. • They were never “partners” like in some areas of Asia (India) • African territory made it difficult to unite • Significant cultural differences made the approach different in different areas (Egypt v. Kenya) • Less Communist influence

  11. Case Study: Kenya • In 1950’s, began struggle to get British out. • Started with Jomo Kenyatta • Mau Mau uprising • Showed that Brits needed military force to keep peace • Showed how organized the Africans were • World press became involved • Forced Brits by 1959 to plan for independence

  12. By 1961 Kenya was made free – originally part of Commonwealth • By 1963, Jomo Kenyatta became first president and elected leader. • Harambee policy (lets bring it together) • Kenya one of the most successful African nations today

  13. Video of Jomo Kenyata • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOqx3ES3gbA&feature=related • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J4tUX2SOT4U&feature=related

  14. Case Study: Egypt • From 1811-1882 – Under Muhammad Ali’s Dynasty. • In 1882, the British made Egypt a “sphere of influence” in order to protect the Suez Canal • Egypt was fought over in both WWI and WWII. • At the end of WWI it became British however after multiple skirmishes, the Egyptians pushed the British to just the Suez • By 1953, Gamel Abdel Nasser becomes president of Egypt

  15. Nasser • Nasser had major achievements • Arab Socialism • Aswan Dam Project • Suez Canal Crisis 1956 brought on by Aswan Dam Project • Supported the Algerian independence movement • Established – with Yugoslavia and India, the non-aligned movement in 1961. • Very popular for standing up to the West, but lost prestige because he couldn’t beat Israel.

  16. Anwar Al-Sadat • 1971 – Took over as President • Gained Soviet military help without strings • Lost Yom Kippur War • Introduced political freedom and economic reform • Infitah “open door” policy – caused rich upper class and riots • Along with Nachum Begin, Jimmy Carter signed the Camp David Accords 1979

  17. Consequences of Camp David • Gained big US aid to Egypt • Gained enmity of Arab World • Sadat assassinated by Islamic extremists • Showed that North Africa had problems quite different than in Sub-Saharan Africa.