The church was very powerful. It claimed power over all religious and secular(non-religious) parts of life.
I. Reasons for the Church’s Power A. Faith 1. The church represented God. 2. Religion united people. 3. The church could send you to Heaven or Hell.
4. If you didn’t obey Canon Lawyou could be excommunicated. Canon Law- church law; the church had its own courts
Excommunication- exclusion (being kicked out) of the church, you can’t receive sacraments (sacred rituals of the Church) or a Christian burial and are Shunned (rejected).
Interdict- excommunication of an entire area or kingdom. This happened when a noble or king violated canon law.
II. Wealth A. Nobles often left land to the church when they died. B. Church wealth increased through tithes (church “tax” or donation; 10%)
III. Learning • Rulers used Clergy(religious officials) to keep records. B. The church preserved learning.
Church Hierarchy DON’T WRITE Pope (1 head) Bishops (2946 diocese, cathedrals) Priests (219,583 parishes) Catholics (1 Billion members)
Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio,[b] 17 December 1936) is Pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio for being the Bishop of Rome, in which capacity he is also the absolute sovereign of the Vatican City State. Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technician and nightclub bouncer before beginning seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969 and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's Provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere and the first non-European pope since the Syrian Gregory III in 741, 1,272 years earlier. From Wikipedia
IV. Corruption A. Corruption grew with wealth and power. B. The clergy lived in luxury & ignored vows. C. This led to reform (change for the better).
DON’T WRITE! Summary 1. Living on manors isolated people from each other. 2. Shared beliefs keep people united during difficult times. 3. The goal was salvation (a life in heaven). 4. The church had power because they controlled the sacraments.
POWER STRUGGLESKings vs. Nobles vs. Church DON’T WRITE! It’s a Triple Threat Match!
DON’T WRITE! The Anglos and Saxons invade England • Anglos – a Germanic tribe (this is where “England” comes from) • Saxons – a Germanic tribe
DON’T WRITE! In 1066, the Anglo-Saxon King Edward died without an heir.
DON’T WRITE! His brother-in-law, Harold, was chosen to rule.
DON’T WRITE! But Duke William of Normandy, France also claimed the English throne!
DON’T WRITE! • The Norman invasion was the last time England was ever invaded. • All kings and queens of England, including Queen Elizabeth II and Prince William, are direct descendants of William the Conqueror and his wife Matilda
I. Royal Power inEngland William the Conqueror created the Domesday Book- took a census for tax collecting
II. Noble’s Power A. Common Law- law that is the same for all people B. Jury System- trial by peers Henry II (King in 1154 CE)
C. In 1215, nobles force King John to sign the Magna Cartaor Great Charter (63 clauses) • Monarch must obey law & protects people’s rights (limited the king’s power)
D. Parliament- a representative governing body (like our Congress!) One of the most photographed buildings in the European Union is the British Parliament. Tourists from around the world adore this magnificent symbol of freedom and democracy. The UK Parliament Buildings are located on the River Thames near Whitehall.
Don’t write!III. Church Power • Several popes clashed with kings over who had more power. Popes usually excommunicated the ruler or placed their kingdom under an interdict to force them to recognize papal supremacy. The pope even had his own private army to carry out “God’s will.”
DON’T WRITE! SUMMARY: All of the above came about because of the clash between kings, feudal lords, and the church. Each wanted more power than the other.