Election of 1800 • The divide between the political parties sharpens, as Adams is seen as tool of the rich and supporter of British style Monarchy, and Jefferson is seen as an atheist and supporter of dangerous French Revolution. • Incumbent – • Election of 1800 - • The House of Representatives resolves tie with a vote for Jefferson, a move facilitated by Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton opposed Jefferson’s politics, but saw him as a more worthy President then Burr • Adams transferring power to Jefferson represented the first peaceful transition of power in US history • Democratic-Republicans swept the Congress as well, ensuring legislative support for Jefferson’s policies
Duel of Hamilton and Burr • Aaron Burr– • Hamilton hated Burr, openly schemed to block him from the 1801 Presidency and the 1804 New York Governorship • Burr challenges Hamilton to duel, killing him by shooting him in the stomach. • Unusual end to the duel, as most conclude with a peaceful reconciling of differences. Burr’s career ends amid murder charges • Twelfth Amendment (1804) –
Jefferson Presidency • Jefferson returns US to republican ideal of 1776, away from Federalism and big government • Jefferson simplified the federal government and emphasized the importance of ordinary citizens • Bureaucracy – • Jefferson 1st President to take office in DC • Influence of Federalists waned as they did not appeal to common man for support • Settlers of the new Western territories tended to vote Democratic-Republican.
Jefferson Complicated Views on Slavery • Jefferson styled himself a member of the Enlightenment and the Southern slave gentry despite the obvious contradiction • According to his Notes on the State of Virginia Jefferson saw Africans as intellectually inferior, thus different than Americans of European descent • Jefferson took no action to block slavery during his Presidency: • 1 • 2 • 3 • Haitian Revolution – • Jefferson does not acknowledge Haiti as a nation, and gives them no support despite his reputation for wanting democracy to spread • Jefferson understood his own shortcomings, and admitted to friends and colleagues that slavery would have to be solved by the next generation
Marshall and the Supreme Court • John Marshall - • Judiciary Act of 1801 – Adams increased the number of Federal judges by 16 members. He wanted the courts to be filled with Federalists • Midnight Judges – • Packing the courts with Federalists angered President Thomas Jefferson
Marbury vs. Madison • Marbury vs. Madison – • Marbury was a midnight judge whose appointment papers were not filed on time, and was not given his post as judge because Jefferson ordered his Secretary of State James Madison not to file them • Instead of ruling directly on the case, the Constitutionality of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was called into question • Court ruled Judicial Act of 1789 was unconstitutional, because a loophole allowed cases involving federal officials to skip the ordinary court hierarchy and go straight to Supreme Court
What was Judicial Review and how did it impact the function of the Supreme Court? • There are no • Supreme Court jokes
The US Expands West • News leaked that France regained all land lost to Spain after French and Indian War, panicking Jefferson administration • The Louisiana Purchase – • The French had given up their quest for an American empire • It was uncertain whether purchasing Louisiana Territory was constitutional, as it was not a specific power given to the federal government. Fearing that Napoleon might withdraw his offer before a new amendment was created, Jefferson bought the land using executive power to make treaties • Lewis and Clark Expedition– • Sacajawea –