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Section 12: Intro to Devices

Section 12: Intro to Devices. Extensive reading materials on reserve, including Robert F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals. Bond Model of Electrons and Holes. ·. Silicon crystal in. a two-dimensional. representation. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si. Si.

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Section 12: Intro to Devices

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  1. Section 12: Intro to Devices Extensive reading materials on reserve, including Robert F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals EE143 – Ali Javey

  2. Bond Model of Electrons and Holes · Silicon crystal in a two-dimensional representation. Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si · When an electron breaks loose and becomes a conduction electron , a hole is also created. EE143 – Ali Javey

  3. Semiconductors, Insulators, and Conductors E c Top of conduction band = E 9 eV g empty E c = E 1.1 eV g filled E E E v v c Conductor SiO , insulator Si, Semiconductor 2 • Totally filled bands and totally empty bands do not allow current flow. (Just as there is no motion of liquid in a totally filled or totally empty bottle.) • Metal conduction band is half-filled. • Semiconductors have lower EG’s than insulators and can bedoped EE143 – Ali Javey

  4. Bottom of conduction band electron + - Energy gap =1.12 eV Top of valence band hole Intrinsic Carriers n (electron conc) = p (hole conc) = ni EE143 – Ali Javey

  5. Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Si Dopants in Silicon As B · As, a Group V element, introduces conduction electrons and creates N-type silicon, and is called a donor. · B, a Group III element, introduces holes and creates P-type silicon, and is called an acceptor. EE143 – Ali Javey

  6. Immobile Charges they DO NOT contribute to current flow with electric field is applied. However, they affect the local electric field Ionized Donor Ionized Acceptor Hole Mobile Charge Carriers they contribute to current flow with electric field is applied. Electron Types of charges in semiconductors EE143 – Ali Javey

  7. Fermi Function–The Probability of an Energy State Being Occupied by an Electron Ef is called the Fermi energy or the Fermi level. Boltzmann approximation: E Ef + 3kT Ef + 2kT E f Ef + kT Ef Ef – kT Ef – 2kT Ef – 3kT f(E) 0.5 1 EE143 – Ali Javey

  8. Electron and Hole Concentrations Nc is called the effective density of states. Nv is called the effective density of states of the valence band. Remember: the closer E moves up to E , the larger n is; f c the closer E moves down to E , the larger p is. f v ´ ´ For Si, N = 2.8 10 19 cm -3 and N = 1.04 10 19 cm -3 . c v EE143 – Ali Javey

  9. Shifting the Fermi Level EE143 – Ali Javey

  10. Quantitative Relationships n: electron concentration (cm-3) p : hole concentration (cm-3) ND: donor concentration (cm-3) NA: acceptor concentration (cm-3) 1) Charge neutrality condition: ND + p = NA + n 2) Law of Mass Action : n p = ni2 Assume completely ionized to form ND+ and NA- What happens when one doping species dominates? EE143 – Ali Javey

  11. General Effects of Doping on n and p I. (i.e., N-type) If , and II. (i.e., P-type) , and If EE143 – Ali Javey

  12. 2 3 1 electron 4 5 E E =0 2 3 1 electron 4 5 Carrier Drift • When an electric field is applied to a semiconductor, mobile carriers will be accelerated by the electrostatic force. This force superimposes on the random thermal motion of carriers: • E.g. Electrons drift in the direction opposite to the E-field  Current flows Average drift velocity = |v| = mE Carrier mobility EE143 – Ali Javey

  13. Si As+ B- - - - - Carrier Mobility • Mobile carriers are always in random thermal motion. If no electric field is applied, the average current in any direction is zero. • Mobility is reduced by 1) collisions with the vibrating atoms “phonon scattering” 2) deflection by ionized impurity atoms “Coulombic scattering” EE143 – Ali Javey

  14. Total Mobility Na + Nd (cm-3) EE143 – Ali Javey

  15. Conductivity and Resistivity Jp,drift = qpv = qppE Jn,drift = –qnv = qnnE Jdrift = Jn,drift + Jp,drift = E=(qnn+qpp)E conductivity of a semiconductor is  = qnn + qpp Resistivity,  = 1/  EE143 – Ali Javey

  16. Relationship between Resistivity and Dopant Density DOPANT DENSITY cm-3 P-type N-type RESISTIVITY (cm)  = 1/ EE143 – Ali Javey

  17. Sheet Resistance • Rs value for a given conductive layer (e.g. doped Si, metals) in IC or MEMS technology is used • for design and layout of resistors • for estimating values of parasitic resistance in a device or circuit (in ohms/square) Rs is the resistance when W = L if r is independent of depth x EE143 – Ali Javey

  18. Diffusion Current Particles diffuse from higher concentration to lower concentration locations. EE143 – Ali Javey

  19. Diffusion Current D is called the diffusion constant. Signs explained: p n x x EE143 – Ali Javey

  20. Generation/Recombination Processes Recombination continues until excess carriers = 0. Time constant of decay is called recombination lifetime EE143 – Ali Javey

  21. Continuity Equations • Combining all the carrier actions: • Now, by the definition of current, we know: • Since a change in carrier concentration must occur from a net current • Therefore, we can compactly write the continuity equation as: EE143 – Ali Javey

  22. PN Junctions – + I V I N P V Reverse bias Forward bias diode symbol A PN junction is present in almost every semiconductor device. EE143 – Ali Javey

  23. Energy Band Diagram and Depletion Layer N-region P-region Ef (a) Ec Ec Ef (b) Ev Ev Ec n 0 and p 0 in the depletion layer Ef (c) Ev Neutral Neutral Depletion layer P-region N-region Ec Ef (d) Ev EE143 – Ali Javey

  24. Qualitative Electrostatics Band diagram Built in-potential From e=-dV/dx EE143 – Ali Javey

  25. Depletion-Layer Model • On the P-side of the depletion layer, = –qNa qN d E = - a e dx s qN qN = - + = - a a ( x ) x C ( x x ) E 1 p e e s s • On theN-side,  = qNd E qN = + d ( x ) ( x x ) E n e s EE143 – Ali Javey

  26. Effect of Bias on Electrostatics EE143 – Ali Javey

  27. Current Flow - Qualitative EE143 – Ali Javey

  28. PN Diode IV Characteristics EE143 – Ali Javey

  29. MOS Capacitors MOS: Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor MOS transistor MOS capacitor EE143 – Ali Javey

  30. MOS Band Diagram – EE143 – Ali Javey

  31. E 0 =0.95 eV c SiO 2 y q y = + ( – ) M c q E E c 3.1 eV 3.1 eV s Si c f Si =4.05eV E E E c , f c V fb E f E E v v 9 eV P-body N + -poly-Si 4.8 eV Flat-band Condition and Flat-band Voltage E c E0 : Vacuum level E0 – Ef : Work function E0 –Ec : Electron affinity Si/SiO2 energy barrier = y - y V fb M s E v SiO 2 EE143 – Ali Javey

  32. Biasing Conditions EE143 – Ali Javey

  33. Biasing Conditions (2) EE143 – Ali Javey

  34. The charge within the depletion region is: Poisson’s equation reduces to: Integrating twice gives: Or: Depletion and the Depletion Width EE143 – Ali Javey

  35. Surface Depletion EE143 – Ali Javey

  36. Threshold Condition and Threshold Voltage threshold of inversion threshold : ns = Na (Ec–Ef)surface= (Ef –Ev)bulk A=B, and C = D EE143 – Ali Javey

  37. Threshold Voltage Summarizing both polarities: + : N-type device, – : P-type device EE143 – Ali Javey

  38. Past VT, the depletion width no longer grows All additional voltage results in inversion layer charge Strong Inversion–Beyond Threshold EE143 – Ali Javey

  39. Review : Basic MOS Capacitor Theory EE143 – Ali Javey

  40. Review : Basic MOS Capacitor Theory total substrate charge, Qs EE143 – Ali Javey

  41. Quasi-Static CV Characteristics EE143 – Ali Javey

  42. Depletion Layer Qualitative MOSFET Operation EE143 – Ali Javey

  43. Channel Length Modulation EE143 – Ali Javey

  44. MOSFET I-V Characteristics – A 1st attempt The Square Law Theory • Current in the channel should be mainly drift-driven • The current is: EE143 – Ali Javey

  45. MOSFET I-V Characteristics – A 1st attempt • But, current is constant through the channel: • We know the inversion layer charge: • Accounting for the non-uniformity: EE143 – Ali Javey

  46. MOSFET I-V Characteristics – A 1st attempt • Past pinch-off, the drain current is constant • So: • Now, in the pinched-off region: EE143 – Ali Javey

  47. N-channel MOSFET Layout (Top View) 4 lithography steps are required: 1. active area 2. gate electrode 3. contacts 4. metal interconnects EE143 – Ali Javey

  48. Simple NMOS Process Flow 1) Thermal oxidation (~10 nm “pad oxide”) 2) Silicon-nitride (Si3N4) deposition by CVD (~40nm) 3) Active-area definition (lithography & etch) 4) Boron ion implantation (“channel stop” implant) EE143 – Ali Javey

  49. Simple NMOS Process Flow 5) Thermal oxidation to grow oxide in “field regions” 6) Si3N4 & pad oxide removal 7) Thermal oxidation (“gate oxide”) 8) Poly-Si deposition by CVD 9) Poly-Si gate-electrode patterning (litho. & etch) 10) P or As ion implantation to form n+ source and drain regions Top view of masks EE143 – Ali Javey

  50. Simple NMOS Process Flow Top view of masks 11) SiO2 CVD 12) Contact definition (litho. & etch) 13) Al deposition by sputtering 14) Al patterning by litho. & etch to form interconnects EE143 – Ali Javey

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