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Topics for Today

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  1. Topics for Today • Finish up NOx • Particulate Matter! • Begin Ozone (Troposphere)

  2. Readings for Today • Readings from Wednesday • PLUS, Sections 6.7 through 6.9 • SOx and NOx and acid rain. What is PM? See page 11 How is it formed? 1.11, for example..

  3. Topics for Wednesday • Ozone, the Good and the Bad • Properties of Light

  4. Readings for Wednesday Section 1.12 Tropospheric Ozone Section 2.1 What is ozone? Where is it? Section 2.4 Waves of Light Section 2.6 The O2 and O3 Sunscreen

  5. Announcements

  6. Exam #1! • You will get these back this week in discussion.

  7. Exam #1! • You will get these back this week in discussion. See the exam re-grade policy on News of the Week!

  8. Topics for Today • Finish up NOx • Particulate Matter! • Begin Ozone (Troposphere)

  9. Criteria Pollutants • Defined by the EPA • CO • SO2 • NOx • PM2.5 and PM10 • O3

  10. Criteria Pollutants • Defined by the EPA • CO • SO2 • NOx • PM2.5 and PM10 • O3 Review… How is NO formed?

  11. 2NO + O2 2NO2 + Demo!!

  12. Nitrogen Monoxide (nitric oxide), NO Poisonous Gas Irritates lungs Highly reactive! A colorless and choking gas

  13. NO2 NO NO2 “nasty” odor “nasty” odor highly reactive reactive poisonous poisonous colorless red-brown gas

  14. NO NO2 “nasty” odor “nasty” odor highly reactive reactive poisonous poisonous colorless red-brown gas

  15. 2NO + O2 2NO2 + Unfortunately, life is not so simple…

  16. 2NO + O2 2NO2 + Unfortunately, life is not so simple… This only takes place at VERY high concentrations of NO!

  17. page 42

  18. Summary Where have we seen VOCs before? N2 + O2 2NO NO + O2 + .OH + VOCs NO2+ VOCs high temp A GAS VOC = Volatile Organic Compounds Contains C

  19. Some VOCs Methane Propane Butane Octane

  20. What are the effects of NOx? H+ NO3- • Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO3)

  21. What are the effects of NOx? • Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO3) • Leads to the formation of smog (smoky fog!)

  22. What are the effects of NOx? • Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO3) • Leads to the formation of smog (smoky fog!) • Extremely potent lung irritants • Especially for susceptible populations (like asthma sufferers)

  23. What are the effects of NOx? • Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO3) • Leads to the formation of smog (smoky fog!) • Extremely potent lung irritant • Especially for susceptible populations (like asthma sufferers • Formation of ozone Which we will talk about soon!

  24. Criteria Pollutants • Defined by the EPA • CO • SO2 • NOx • PM2.5 and PM10 • O3

  25. Particulate matter: Liquid droplets or solid particles in the air. AKA Atmospheric Aerosols

  26. Particulate matter: Liquid droplets or solid particles in the air Are we breathing PM right now? Handout: PM and their size

  27. TERMS PM2.5: Particles with a diameter of < 2.5 μm. PM10: Particles with a diameter of < 10 μm. Human Hair (about 50 μm)

  28. TERMS PM2.5 is contained in PM10! PM2.5: Particles with a diameter of < 2.5 μm. PM10: Particles with a diameter of < 10 μm.

  29. More Terms… Fine Particles: Particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Also called the respirable fraction.

  30. More Terms… Fine Particles: Particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Also called the respirable fraction. Usually caused by combustion!

  31. Fine Particles: Particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Also called the respirable fraction. Coarse Particles: The Big Stuff. Diameter greater than 2.5 μm.

  32. Coarse Particles: The Big Stuff. Diameter greater than 2.5 μm. Usually formed by mechanical means.

  33. Where does PM come from naturally?

  34. Burning things… Where does PM come from naturally? Mostly Coarse or Fine?

  35. Sea Spray… Where does PM come from naturally? Mostly Coarse or Fine?

  36. Air Currents(Wind)! Where does PM come from naturally? Mostly Coarse or Fine?

  37. How do people make PM?

  38. Automobiles / Trucks How do people make PM? Exhaust Mostly Coarse or Fine? Brakedust Road Dust!

  39. Burning things… How do people make PM? Mostly Coarse or Fine?

  40. Assignment #2 Sausage Factories? How do people make PM?

  41. Assignment #2 Sausage Factories? How do people make PM? http://www.epa.gov/air/data/geosel.html

  42. What does PM LOOK like? Virus Asbestos Fiber Soot Particle

  43. How do we measure PM?

  44. Waukesha, WI!!

  45. How much is too much?

  46. Which is thought to be more harmful?

  47. PM2.5 Yearly Average = 20 μg / m3 Yearly Average = 13 μg / m3