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I. Introduction PowerPoint Presentation
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I. Introduction

I. Introduction

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I. Introduction

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  1. Protein Synthesis I.Introduction A.History

  2. 1.Protein Structure a.A. Fourcroy – recognized protein as a class of biological molecules b.J. Mulder – Identified proteins as all having the same formula c.F.Sanger– sequenced insulin d.T.Svedberg – proposed that proteins had conformation e.Armour Hot Dog Co.– purified pure bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A

  3. 2.From Gene to Protein a.J. von Liebig – started physiological chemistry b.E. Buchner – started Bio-chemistry c.W.Rontgen– discovered value of x-rays, led toX-ray crystallography d.L.Pauling – discovered H-bonding in protein e.G.Beadle&E. Tatum– relationship of gene to protein

  4. B.The Code

  5. 1.Central Dogma a. DNARNAProtein(Product) Figure 17.3

  6. 2.Triplet Code Figure 17.4

  7. 3.Code Dictionary a. Special Codes Figure 17.5

  8. II.Transcription A.Definition B.Process

  9. 1. Overview Figure 17.7

  10. 1. Overview & Players Figure 17.7

  11. 2. Initiation == transcription factors, attach, unwind, & orient RNA polymerase Figure 10.13 Figure 17.8

  12. 3. Elongation == RNA polymerasereadsandlays down bases

  13. 4. Termination == factorsrecognize and release the RNA polymerase

  14. 5. Modification == pre-mRNA to mRNA Figure 17.10

  15. 5. Modification == pre-mRNA to mRNA Figure 17.11

  16. 5. Modification == pre-mRNA to mRNA Figure 17.12

  17. III.Translation A.Definition B.Process

  18. 1. Overview & Players Figure 17.13

  19. tRNA Figure 17.14

  20. Figure 17.15

  21. rRNA & mRNA Figure 17.16

  22. 2. Initiation Figure 17.17

  23. 3. Elongation Figure 17.18

  24. Figure 17.5

  25. 4. Termination Figure 17.20 Figure 17.19

  26. 5. Modification Figure 17.21

  27. IV.Gene Expression A.Strategies B.Organelles

  28. 1. Intracellular What/Which organelle(s) are involved in building proteins which are to be used by the cell? Ribosomes! 2. Extracellular What/Which organelle(s) are involved in building proteins which are to be put into vacuoles for shipping or retention? Ribosomes, rER, and Golgi!

  29. VI.Mutations A.Definition B.Point

  30. 1. Base Pair Substitutions Figure 17.23

  31. 2. Frame Shift Figure 17.25

  32. Meaningcomes witheffort.