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I. Introduction

I. Introduction

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I. Introduction

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  1. Classification Biology I. Introduction A.Background 1. Why classify organisms? 2. How do you classify?

  2. B.Organization K, P, C, O, F, G, & S

  3. II. Viruses A.Structure

  4. The parts == protein (capsid , landing gear, and injector) surrounding a nucleic acid (genome= can be DNA or RNA) Figure 10.24 & 25

  5. B.Life Style

  6. 1. Lytic = inject, insert, take over, direct, and destroy Figure 10.26

  7. 2. Lysogenic = same except hide for a time then lytic Figure 10.26

  8. C.Uses 1. Vaccines 2. Gene Vectors

  9. III. Kingdom Moneran A.Structure

  10. Monerans = prokaryotes Can be spherical , rod, or helical Figure 15.11

  11. B.Metabolism

  12. Monerans == autotrophic (chemo.or photosynthetic) or heterotrophic (photo. or chemo.) Table 15.1

  13. Strategies == saprophytic, parasitic, nitrogen fixers or symbionts Classed as obligate aerobic, facultative anaerobic, or obligate anaerobic

  14. C.Sensory

  15. Monerans by flagella (either by chemo-taxis or photo-taxis) Figure 15.12

  16. D.Reproduction

  17. Binary Fission Endospore Formation Figure 15.13

  18. E.Taxa

  19. 1. Bacteria == beneficial to pathogenic Figure 15.11b Figure 15.15

  20. 2. Archae == oldest Methanogens Thermoacidophiles Figure 15.9

  21. F.Uses

  22. IV. Kingdom Protistan A.General Characteristics

  23. Protisitanssingle celled to multi-celled divided into protozoa and algae.

  24. B.Major Taxa 1. Protozoa

  25. Protozoa = heterotrophs, movement, asexual, andfood

  26. 2. Algae

  27. a. Single celled algae == autotrophic, pigments & store glucose i. Euglenophyta== chlorophyll & paramylum

  28. ii. Chrysophyta = golden algae silica shell flagellated, fucoxathin, & oil Diatoms

  29. iii. Pyrrophyta = red algaeB-carotene and xanthophylls, cellulose Dinoflagellates

  30. b. Multi-celled algaeautotrophs seaweeds. i. Chlorophytachlorophyll, starch, mutualistic

  31. ii. Phaeophytabrown algae with chlorophylls and xanthophylls, oil, parts (holdfast, stipe, and blades),and alteration of generation

  32. iii. Rhodophyta red algae with chlorophylls, carotenoids, and phycobilin, plusjelly-like agar

  33. iv. Gymnomycota slime molds with phagocyticspores

  34. C.Uses 1. Protozoa 2. Algae

  35. V. Kingdom Fungi A.General Characteristics

  36. Fungi == hyphae & mycelium

  37. Septate Non-septate Mycelium in nature

  38. Fungi have chitin cell walls -- heterotrophicscavengers Some can be predatory or mutualistic.

  39. B.Reproductive Strategies

  40. Asexually via spores, budding, or fragmentation

  41. Sexually via fusion of gametes

  42. C.Major Taxa

  43. 1. PhylumChytridiomycotawater molds with flagellated spores, clearsex gametes, chitin cell walls

  44. 2. PhylumZygomycotaterrestrial molds, saprobesasexual or sexual, chitin, Food destroyers!

  45. 3. PhylumAscomycotasac-like fungi, asexual or sexual spores and dikaryonic

  46. 4. PhylumBasidiomycota. “True shrooms” or club fungi sexual basidiocarp (What you eat!) Dikaryonic

  47. 5. Deuteromycota. Odd collection parasitic and fragmenters

  48. D.Uses & Problems

  49. VI. Kingdom Plantae A.General Characteristics

  50. Plants == terrestrial autotrophs (aquatic, parasitic, or carnivorous) from Chlorophyta? chlorophyll a and b, starch, cellulose cell walls