TEST PREP: Must Know Concepts Chapter One: The Sociological Perspective
1. Sociology The scientific study of society and human behavior. The science of describing social relationships. It is complex and vast in scope.
2. The 3 Questions Sociologists ask: What is? How are things connected? Why are they connected in this way?
#3. Social integration: Term to describe how involved the quality and quantity of relationships an individual has.
#4. Global Perspective: The study of the larger world and our society’s place in it.
#5. Social Marginality: Term used to describe the state of being/ feeling like “an outsider” – not part of the dominant group on a daily basis. The greater people’s social marginality, the better able they are to use the sociological perspective.
#6. Theory A statement of how and why specific facts are related.
#7. Theoretical Paradigm A basic image of society that guides your thinking and research.
#8. Structural Functional Paradigm: A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity & stability. “the glass is half full”
#9. Social Structure Any stable pattern of social behavior
#10. Social function: The consequences (results) of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
#11. Social Dysfunction: The undesirable consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society.
12. Manifest Functions: Recognized AND intended consequences. Example: school => learning to read
#13. Latent Function Consequences that are largely unrecognized and unintended Example: School => day care
#14. Social Conflict Paradigm A framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change The glass is half empty….
15. Macro- sociology Macro-level orientation: Looking at/ a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole.
16. Micro-sociology Micro-level orientation: A close-up focus on social interactions in specific situations.
#17. Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm: A framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interaction of individuals… “face to face approach”