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Ancient Manuscripts

Ancient Manuscripts

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Ancient Manuscripts

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  1. Ancient Manuscripts How We Got Our Bible

  2. Original Manuscript Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy Copy

  3. The Masorites • Their name: Masorah (“tradition”). • Jewish community of Tiberius.

  4. The Masorites • Their name: Masorah (“tradition”). • Jewish community of Tiberius. • Vowel points ( ) versus ( ) ~yhil{a/ hw"hy> ~yhla hwhy

  5. The Masorites • Their name: Masorah (“tradition”). • Jewish community of Tiberius. • Vowel points. • Careful rules regarding the copying of the Scriptures

  6. Description Dates Textual Family Proto Alexandrian Siniaticus, Vaticanus 2nd – 4th Century Alexandrian Ephraemi Rescriptus 3rd – 12th Century Western Latin 3rd – 13th Century Byzantine Textus Receptus, KJV 5th – 10th Century

  7. Codex Alexandrinus • Written 450 A.D. • Septuagint & New Testament • Kept in Alexandria • Patriarch of Constantinople presented to England in 1627.

  8. Codex Vaticanus Codex B • Septuagint and New Testament. • Dated to 350 A.D. • Missing 71 pages. • Napoleon took the Vatican Library to Paris in 1809. • Codex returned to Vatican in 1815.

  9. Codex Vaticanus Codex B • Samuel Tregelles permitted to examine it in 1843. • The entire manuscript was photographed and published in 1890.

  10. Ephraemi Rescriptus • Greek translations of sermons of Father Ephraem the Syrian (306-373). • A Palimpsest: “Scraped again.” These sermons copied in 12th century.

  11. Ephraemi Rescriptus • Protestant pastor Pierre Allix discovered the writing underneath the palimpsest in late 1600’s. • Dated to early 5th Century. • Contains some of the Septuagint, but most surviving pages are from the New Testament. • Contains the long ending of Mark.

  12. Ephraemi Rescriptus

  13. Codex Sinaiticus • Count Konstantin von Tischendorf visited St Katherine’s Monastery in 1844.

  14. Codex Sinaiticus • Count Konstantin von Tischendorf visited St Katherine’s Monastery in 1844. • 129 pages initially discovered. • Written around 350 A.D.

  15. Codex Sinaiticus • Count Konstantin von Tischendorf visited St Katherine’s Monastery in 1844. • 129 pages initially discovered. • Written around 350 A.D. • Tischendorf permitted to take 43 pages. • The manuscript was eventually given to Czar Nicholas of Russia.

  16. Codex Sinaiticus • The U.S.S.R. sold the codex to the British Museum in 1933 for 100,000 pounds. • A forgotten room was discovered in 1975 containing more ancient manuscript fragments. • Another page was found in 2009.

  17. Oxyrhynchos Papyri • Grenfell & Hunt were doing an excavation south of the Faiyum Oasis in Egypt.

  18. Oxyrhynchos Papyri • Grenfell & Hunt were doing an excavation south of the Faiyum Oasis in Egypt. • Stuffed crocodiles. • Portions of New Testament.

  19. Chester Beatty Papyri • Purchased from an antiquities dealer by American millionaire Chester Beatty.

  20. Chester Beatty Papyri • Epistles of Paul dated to 2nd Century. • Now at University of Pennsylvania. • Purchased from an antiquities dealer by American millionaire Chester Beatty.

  21. Chester Beatty Papyri • Purchased from an antiquities dealer by American millionaire Chester Beatty. • Epistles of Paul dated to 2nd Century.

  22. Dead Sea Scrolls Palestine 1947

  23. Qumran

  24. ISAIAH SCROLL

  25. Scroll of Righteousness

  26. Jerusalem Qumran    Bethlehem Kando

  27. Mar Samuel Eleazar Sukenik 4 Scrolls 3 Scrolls Jerusalem Qumran    Bethlehem Kando

  28. Mar Samuel Eleazar Sukenik 4 Scrolls 3 Scrolls Jerusalem Qumran    Bethlehem Kando

  29. Eleazar Sukenik 3 Scrolls Hebrew University of Jerusalem • Incomplete manuscript of Isaiah reflecting old Hebrew • Thanksgiving Hymns • War Scroll

  30. Mar Samuel 4 Scrolls Metropolitan of the Syrian Orthodox Church in Jerusalem • Isaiah Scroll reflecting editorial changes • Community Rule • Pesher Habakkuk • Genesis Apocryphon

  31. Mar Samuel 4 Scrolls • Moved to the United States • Put the scrolls up for sale in a newspaper advertisement

  32. Mar Samuel 4 Scrolls

  33. Mar Samuel 4 Scrolls • Son of Eleazar Sukenik • General in Israeli army • Purchased through an intermediary the four scrolls for the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Yigal Yadin

  34. Dead Sea Scrolls • Languages Represented • Mostly Hebrew text • Few Aramaic • Even fewer Greek

  35. Dead Sea Scrolls • Languages Represented • Writing Materials • Mostly Parchment • Few Papyri • One Copper Scroll

  36. Dead Sea Scrolls • Languages Represented • Writing Materials • Subject Matter • Biblical texts (Old Testament) • Jewish books • Books used of a unique Jewish sect