passive voice n.
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  1. PASSIVE VOICE HOW IS IT INTERPRETED Presentation for SBCD July, 2010 Carol C. Tipton, Ed.D.

  2. OBJECTIVES • Define PASSIVE VOICE • Describe the components of a PASSIVE VOICE structure • Explain why PASSIVE VOICE is used • Demonstrate progressively more complex forms of PASSIVE VOICE usage and how to interpret each • Identify and interpret PASSIVE VOICE in context SBCD 2010

  3. What is PASSIVE VOICE? • A verb inflection in which the subject is represented as being acted on • Asserting that the grammatical subject of a verb is subjected to or affected by the action represented by that verb SBCD 2010

  4. Components of a PASSIVE VOICE Utterance • Direct Object or Grammatical Subject, a Noun • BE Verb (optional) • Past participle • The word “BY” (optional) • Agent or “Subject” (optional) Eve was tempted by the serpent. SBCD 2010

  5. When is PASSIVE VOICE used? • When the subject is unknown The Bibles were removed from the choir room. • When the subject is relatively unimportant The Christmas tree was put away on Jan. 2 . • To avoid putting someone on the defensive The kitchen was not cleaned after the fellowship. SBCD 2010

  6. When is PASSIVE VOICE used? continued • To make institutional or policy statements Officers shall be elected annually. • To avoid personal responsibility The mission offering was misplaced. SBCD 2010

  7. How to interpret PASSIVE VOICE • Recognize the passive structure • Ensure that the object receives the action 1. Use the agent to perform the action 2. Put the object in space as a classifier and show action happening to it. 3. Create a logical agent. 4. Become an unspecified agent 5. Restructure the sentence. SBCD 2010

  8. STANDARD PASSIVE Noun + BE Verb + Past Participle + (BY + Agent) • Isaac was released by his father, Abraham. • Hannah was ridiculed by her husband’s other wife. • Jesus was betrayed by Judas Iscariot. • Two mites were given by the poor widow. SBCD 2010

  9. More standard passive… • Solomon was visited by the Queen of Sheba. • The disciples’ feet were washed by Jesus. • The animals were named by Adam. • A decree was issued by Caesar Agustus. • The prodigal son was welcomed by his father. • On the road to Emmaus Jesus was not recognized by the two men. SBCD 2010

  10. STANDARD PASSIVE WITHOUT THE “BY” PHRASE • The place was also called Mizpah. • The words of Esau were told to Rebekah. • Ten lepers were cured but only one gave thanks. • I will be hidden from your presence. • I always felt loved growing up. • Daniel was placed in the lion’s den. • Jesus was invited to Zacchaeus’ home. • King Agrippa was almost persuaded to become a Christian. SBCD 2010

  11. More STANDARD PASSIVE WITHOUT THE “BY” PHRASE • Interpreters are required to be on time. • You are expected to interpret accurately. • Should a child ever be spanked? • Ten virgins showed up late and were turned away. • Who in the Bible is described as a dreamer? • Each worker was paid a denarius. • The rich young ruler was told to sell all his possessions. • Herod was informed about Messiah’s birth. SBCD 2010

  12. STANDARD PASSIVE WITHOUT THE “BE” VERB • Saul, the man chosen to be king, was shy. • Those forgiven of their sins will spend eternity with the Lord. • Seeds sown on rocky ground do not grow strong. • You don’t need a pastor trained in the latest theories. • The man sold into slavery was Joseph. • Christians hated by the world are comforted by the Lord. SBCD 2010

  13. More STANDARD PASSIVE WITHOUT THE “BE” VERB • The sound heard was like rushing waters. • A servant warned is without excuse. • A kingdom destroyed may not be rebuilt. • Those bidden to the marriage did not come. • He shall be like a tree planted by the water. SBCD 2010

  14. PASSIVE GERUNDS • The Lord does not want to be ignored. • Children enjoy being read Bible stories. • Being redeemed is a great privilege. • Joseph welcomed being asked to interpret dreams. • The church expected to be sued after the woman fell on the ice. SBCD 2010

  15. More PASSIVE GERUNDS • She only wanted to be loved. • Being falsely accused was a dreadful experience for Joseph. • Being invited to a Bible study can spark someone’s interest in spiritual things. • Jesus wants to be trusted by his followers. • Paul asked to be released from his thorn in the flesh. SBCD 2010

  16. PASSIVE PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES • Without Jesus there is no known cure for the sin problem. • The church decided to buy a used van. • Is alcohol abuse learned behavior? • We stored the donated items in the church basement. • Isaac and Rebekah had an arranged marriage. • Leah was the unloved wife of Jacob. • The uninvited guests were turned away. SBCD 2010

  17. Deep Structure Passives • Pat is interested. Pat is interesting. • Chris is excited. Chris is exciting. • Lee is bored. Lee is boring. • John is eager to please. John is easy to please. SBCD 2010

  18. Practice Text 1A: Psalms The book of Psalms is the greatest collection of songs ever composed and the greatest collection of prayers every prayed, and all of them included in one single book. In no other writings, whether sacred or secular, is the heart and soul of man more clearly revealed than in the Psalms. The sighs, sobs, and songs buried deeply within the human spirit find their release through these 150 Psalms. SBCD 2010

  19. Practice Text 2A: Angels I soon discovered that little had been written on the subject of angels. Angels are used to execute judgment on nations. In the midst of of the world crisis through which we are destined to live in the years ahead, the subject of angels will be of great comfort and inspiration to believers in God. SBCD 2010

  20. Practice Text 3A: Sacrifice Although we are not specifically told so, it would seem probable that some innocent animal was killed so that Adam and Eve might be clothed. This paves the way for the doctrine of the innocent dying for the guilty. “But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities,… and with his stripes we are healed.” Is. 53: SBCD 2010

  21. Practice Text 4A: Hebrews The letter to the Hebrews seems to have been addressed to Rome, although it is impossible to be certain about this. The letter is not addressed to a specific church, but to a group of Christian Jews who, it is generally supposed, were segregated from the main church and were hankering after the glories of Judaism. The unnamed author shows the superiority of Christ to the old religion. SBCD 2010

  22. Practice Text 5A: Church Giving Indicate the total amount of all designated gifts received by the congregation from individuals for a specific use. Designated receipts are those gifts where the giver, not the congregation, decides how the money will be spent. Indicate the total amount of undesignated and designated funds given to missions by the congregation. SBCD 2010

  23. Practice Text 6A: Church Bylaws The procedure outlined by Christ in Matthew 18:15-20 shall be encouraged when serious sin is detected in the life of a member. A dismissed member may visit the church, as any other unbeliever, but will in no way be considered a member of the Body in its fellowship until repentance is expressed to the Body. SBCD 2010

  24. Practice Oral Text 1 • Stephen, the first chosen deacon was stoned because of his fearless proclamation of the gospel. • Who was chosen to take the place of Judas? • Most of the court believed that Jesus was a dangerous character, to be put out of the way by any means, legal or illegal. • The Sadducees were noted for their antagonism toward the Pharisees. • Children should be seen and not heard. SBCD 2010

  25. Oral Text 2 Psalm 69 is often quoted in the New Testament. The psalmist’s picture in verses 2, 14-15 could be taken for an actual description of Jeremiah’s case. The guilt of his tormentors is clear: may they be punished for all they have done. SBCD 2010

  26. Oral Text 3 Hofman’s clear, simple, beautiful representations of the life of Jesus are so appealing that they are more widely used in Sunday Schools today than those of any other artist. SBCD 2010

  27. Oral Text 4 The Bible story of the various authorities, both Jewish and Roman, before whom Jesus was brought by his accusers may be read beginning in John chapter 18. SBCD 2010

  28. Oral Text 5 Two mites, literally two lepta, make about half a cent. The lepton was the smallest copper coin used, and two was the smallest gift allowed to be given to the temple. SBCD 2010

  29. More Practice Exercises • The man who needed help was helped. • The miracles of Jesus were performed so people would believe…. • …not to be seen of people. • Give and it shall be given to you. • Even though they’d been preached to, they did not believe. • ..make all my wants and wishes known. SBCD 2010