A Divided Nation: The Civil War
What To Expect • Learning Stations Activities • Group Activities • Computer Lab • Cooperative Learning Opportunities • Primary Source Activities • DBQ • PowerPoint with Discussion • Unit Assessment
K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN What I Learned About the Civil War What I Know About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War
The Precursor: Westward Expansion • Sectional Conflict - - Very Real and Very Important • Each section wanted expansion • Each wanted new states to be created in its own image • Senate Balance • Economic Motives • Merchants and Industrialists of Northeast wanted an expanding market • Free states proved to be a much better market for their products
The Precursor: Westward Expansion • Economic Motives • Southern Planters wanted new plantations • Why? Soil on the old plantations no longer viable year after year of the same crop (poor crop rotation) • Start a new plantation, start over • Better economic opportunities through expansion
The Precursor: Westward Expansion • TTYN: Describe the term Manifest Destiny • Within this context (westward expansion), it was a term/ideology promoted by politicians to win popular support for expansionism
The Precursor: Westward Expansion and the effects of Manifest Destiny
The Precursor: Westward Expansion • The Opening of China • Opium Wars • America persuades the Chinese Emperor the same concessions as that of Britain; gave birth to the idea of enormous wealth as a result of trade w/ China • Led to the projecting of a railroad to the Pacific Coast • Each section wanted the RR to bring Chinese trade its way • TTYN: How does Manifest Destiny fit into this equation?
Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War • Arrival of James Polk as a national figure • Southern Platform (and now Polk’s) – reoccupation of Oregon and reannexation of Texas • North – “Fifty-four-forty or fight” • Eastern TX introduced cotton and plantation system • TX achieved independence in 1836 • TX wanted annexation • “The war was unnecessarily and unconstitutionally • initiated by the President.” • Abraham Lincoln, 1848
Oregon, Texas, and the Mexican War • Polk negotiates with Britain for the Oregon Territory • Enter CA – Remember China and Manifest Destiny • 1845 – TX annexed • Mexican War • The Gadsden Purchase • Small Group ity • “The Gadsden Purchase” • Small Group Activity • See Learning Packet
The Wilmot Proviso • “ Neither slavery not involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said country” • – Wilmot Proviso • Lands acquired from Mex. (CA, NV, UT, AZ, and NM) • Passed in Congress • Defeated in Southern-dominated Senate • The issue of slavery in the territories would become the defining issue in the years that followed
The Wilmot Proviso • “ Neither slavery not involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said country” • – Wilmot Proviso • TTYN: Interpret the following quotes • “…the Wilmot Proviso is an unconstitutional act that would deny Southerners the right to move freely with their property into commonly held American territory.” • - John Calhoun • “…while the Constitution protected slavery in the states where it already existed, we should never knowingly lend ourselves directly or indirectly, to prevent that slavery from dying a natural death – to find new places for it to live in, when it can no longer exist in the old.” • - Abraham Lincoln
Learning Stations: The Compromise’s • Learning Stations - Working cooperatively, each group will rotate through the Compromises of the Civil War • Each student will complete the Compromises of the Civil War Learning Packet
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Henry Clay The “Great Conciliator” The “Great Compromiser”
Missouri Compromise SEC. 8. And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited: Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid.
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 • What was going on… • Westward Expansion • The Industrial North vs. the Agrarian South • First crisis in the North-South sectionalism over the admission of Missouri • Missouri –Slave State and Maine – Free State = Balance
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Why the Missouri Compromise was important…
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 • Why the Missouri Compromise was important… • For the future, no other slave states should be admitted in the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern boundary of Missouri – the36°30′ • East of the line was room for two more slave states and two free states • Would stabilize the senate • Compromise would become problematic when the area west was suitable for settlement
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Missouri Compromise or the Compromise of 1820 Thomas Jefferson’s Opinion “..the Missouri question aroused and filled me with alarm…I have been among the most sanguine in believing that our Union would be of long duration. I now doubt it much.” letter to William Short, April 11, 1820 “…like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at once as the knell of the Union.” letter to John Holmes, April 22, 1820
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War • The Compromise of 1850 • Compromise of 1850 is considered a turning point • Shifted the public emphasis from expansion to preserving the Union • May be considered the first in a chain of events of the 1850’s that led up to the Civil War • Fugitive Slave law was bitterly opposed by many throughout the North • South remains bitter over the loss of CA as slave state because there was no place for another slave state
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 TTYN: Interpret the following quote “I had never in my life up to this time suffered from the Slave Institution. Slavery in Virginia or Carolina was like Slavery in Africa or the Feejees, for me. There was an old fugitive law, but it had become or was fast becoming a dead letter, and, by the genius and laws of Massachusetts, inoperative. The new Bill made it operative, required me to hunt slaves, and it found citizens in Massachusetts willing to act as judges and captors. Moreover, it discloses the secret of the new times, that Slavery was no longer mendicant, but was become aggressive and dangerous.” -Ralph Waldo Emerson
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 It being desirable, for the peace, concord, and harmony of the Union of these States, to settle and adjust amicably all existing questions of controversy between them arising out of the institution of slavery upon a fair, equitable and just basis: therefore, 1. Resolved, That California, with suitable boundaries, ought, upon her application to be admitted as one of the States of this Union, without the imposition by Congress of any restriction in respect to the exclusion or introduction of slavery within those boundaries. 2. Resolved, That as slavery does not exist by law, and is not likely to be introduced into any of the territory acquired by the United States from the republic of Mexico… 8. Resolved, That Congress has no power to promote or obstruct the trade in slaves between the slaveholding States; but that the admission or exclusion of slaves brought from one into another of them depends exclusively upon their own particular laws.
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act • The Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854 undid the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850. • The tension between pro-slavery and free soil factions over slavery in new territories increased • Stephen Douglas' bill left the Kansas territory open to the rule of popular sovereignty.
What Did We Learn: The Compromises of the Civil War The Kansas-Nebraska Act • In the political arena, arguments between the Democratic Party, who supported popular sovereignty and states' rights, and their opposition, the Whigs, heated up and had lasting effects leading up to the outbreak of the Civil War. • On the ground, fighting developed in "Bloody Kansas," such as John Brown's raid on Pottawattamie Creek
Uncle Tom’s Cabin “one of the most effective pieces of political propaganda ever produced.” - Salmon Chase
K-W-L The Civil War - TTYN What I Learned About the Civil War What I Know About the Civil War What I Want to Learn About the Civil War
Martyr or Terrorist? • Small Group Reading Activity • John Brown – Martyr or Terrorist • Read the two readings on John Brown • Working cooperatively, respond to the question at the end of reading #2. • Present your remarks to class • ***Refer to Notes Packet
Martyr Terrorist Martyr or Terrorist?
John Brown’s RaidHarper’s Ferry, VA, October 1859 Martyr or Terrorist?
John Brown’s Raid Martyr or Terrorist?
“I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” Martyr or Terrorist?
Dred Scott • 7-2 decision ruled that blacks “are not included, and were not intended to be included, under the word ‘citizens’ in the Constitution.” • Scott had no standing in federal court • According to Taney, neither the Declaration of Independence nor the Constitution had been intended to apply to blacks. • “So far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect”
Dred Scott • In March of 1857, the United States Supreme Court, led by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the United States. • The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permitting slavery in all of the country's territories. • Taney - Congress had exceeded its authority when if forbade slavery…for slaves were private property protected by the Constitution.
Dred Scott • The case before the court was that of Dred Scott v. Sanford. Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom. • Taney -- a staunch supporter of slavery and intent on protecting southerners from northern aggression -- wrote in the Court's majority opinion that, because Scott was black, he was not a citizen and therefore had no right to sue.
Dred Scott • Abolitionists were incensed. Although disappointed, Frederick Douglass, found a bright side to the decision and announced, "my hopes were never brighter than now." • TTYN: Why would Douglas suggest such an idea? • For Douglass, the decision would bring slavery to the attention of the nation and was a step toward slavery's ultimate destruction.
Dred Scott TTYN– The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution, did Taney ignore the basic ideas of each? Specifically, “all men are created equal.” He believed that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it."
Dred ScottPublic Reaction Dred Scott “It is no novelty to find the Supreme Court following the lead of the Slavery Extension party, to which most of its members belong. Five of the Judges are slaveholders, and two of the other four owe their appointments to their facile ingenuity in making State laws bend to Federal demands in behalf of "the Southern institution.“ - Editorial in the Albany, New York, Evening Journal, 1857
The Election of 1860 • The presidential Election of 1860 brought these conflicts to a head with dramatic consequences. • The Democratic Party split into three groups along regional lines, each vying for control of the party and each holding different ideas about how to deal with slavery in the West. • Three camps lined up against Abraham Lincoln, the nominee of the Republican Party, who advocated that the West be free of slavery entirely.
The Election of 1860 • Lincoln’s opponents were so deeply divided, he won with less than forty percent of the popular vote (but with fifty-nine percent of the Electoral College) and without taking a single slave state. • Although Lincoln’s election was fair, it nonetheless pushed the Deep South toward secession.
The Election of 1860 • Lincoln – The Immediate Reason for Secession • Unpopular in the South • Perceived hostility towards slavery • Perceived threat to the institution • Truth – Lincoln was not an extreme abolitionist • Opposed further extension, but had no intention of interfering with slavery where it existed • The election – The “straw that broke the camel’s back”
Secession • South Carolina responded to Lincoln’s election first, seceding from the Union on December 20, 1860. • This action made front-page news in the North two days later when Harper’s Weekly featured portraits of the state’s Congressmen on its cover, titled The Seceding South Carolina Delegation.
Secession • Other slave states followed in short order: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. • In early February, representatives of those states gathered in Montgomery, Alabama, to found a new nation, The Confederate States of America (also known as the Confederacy), and to name its president, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.
Why Secession? • Southern Economic Interests • Long-range threat to the entire economic and social structure of the South • No. Republicans pushing for a homestead law • Northern Railroad plans • High Tariffs • Sectional balance in the Senate
Secession: An opportunity to bring peace? • Many believed that secession would put the South into a bargaining position to secure a constitutional amendment to safeguard Southern interests. • “Better terms outside of the Union than in it” • Peace Convention • Seven Amendments presented • None were put forward • Secession would have to see it through
Union in Peril TTYN:Describe how each of the following three quotes explains the necessity to protect and preserve the Union. Document 1 “I consider the central idea pervading this struggle is the necessity that is upon on, of proving that popular government is not an absurdity. We must settle this question now, whether in a free government the minority have the right to break up the government whenever they choose. If we fail it will go far to prove the incapability of the people to govern themselves.” Abraham Lincoln