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Process Improvement

Process Improvement

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Process Improvement

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  1. Process Improvement

  2. It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory. • W. Edwards Deming Both change and stability are fundamental to process improvement. • Dennis Ahern

  3. Models • Models provide a common set of process requirements that capture the best practices and knowledge in a format that can be used to guide priorities. • CMMI Distilled, Ahern, Clouse, Turner, p5.

  4. Basic Model of Improvement • Observe some difficulty • Collect some data • Identify the root causes (hypothesis) • Develop reasonable solutions (test) • Plan and implement the changes

  5. Process Improvement Doesn’t Just Happen • many models and buzzwords • SEI • ISO 9000 • CQI • test process improvement • PSP • CMM • Plan-Do-Check-Act • QIP • …

  6. Emphasis • high-quality software • finite amount of resources • cost-effective manner

  7. Two Observables • Cost: • Main cost in software is time. (Why?) • Quality: • correctness • reliability • robustness • user friendliness • verifiability • maintainability • safety

  8. Why is Process Improvement Difficult? • Software development is: • Evolutionary and experimental • Not production • Human based • Software is variable: • Processes • Goals • Content • We lack models: • Needed to to reason about the process and the product

  9. Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for Software

  10. Capability Maturity Model (CMM) for Software • Process Capability • ability of a process to produce planned results • Software Engineering Institute (SEI) • Carnegie Mellon • 5 Levels • Certification based on audits

  11. 5 Stages of CMM for Software • Level 1: Initial • Level 2: Repeatable • Level 3: Defined • Level 4: Managed • Level 5: Optimizing Optimizing Managed Defined Repeatable Initial

  12. Optimizing Major improvements in quality and quantity SEI Capability Maturity Model Process control • Managed • Substantial quality improvements • Comprehensive measurements Process management Defined Achieved foundation for major and continuing progress Process definition Basic management control Repeatable Achieved a stable process with a repeatable level of statistical control • Initial • Ad hoc • No process in place

  13. Characteristics No sound SE management principles in place Ad hoc practices May be successful because of competent manager and team Activities are not preplanned, but response to crisis Unpredictable process Cannot predict time and cost of development To get to next level Initiate project management CMM Maturity Level 1: Initial

  14. Elements of Basic Project Management • Software Configuration Management • Software Quality Assurance • Software Acquisition Management • Software Project Control • Software Project Planning • Software Requirements Management

  15. Characteristics Basic SE management practices in place Planning and management are based on experience with similar products (repeatable) Track costs and schedules Identify problems as arise and take immediate corrective action To get to next level Standardize Processes CMM Maturity Level 2: Repeatable

  16. Process Standardization • Peer Reviews • Project Interface Coordination • Software Product Engineering • methods and technologies • software development process architecture • Integrated Software Management • Organization-level Awareness • Organization Training Program • Organization Process Definition • Organization Process Focus

  17. Characteristics Process for development fully documented Reviews used to achieve software quality Introduce CASE Tools To get to next level Quantitative Management CMM Maturity Level 3: Defined

  18. Quantitative Management • Statistical process management • quantify quality and cost parameters • Process database to maintain process data • Assess relative quality of each product

  19. Characteristics Organization sets quality and productivity goals for each project Continually measure Statistical quality control in place To get to next level Support automatic gathering of process data Use data to analyze and modify the process Defect Prevention CMM Maturity Level 4: Managed

  20. Characteristics Statistical quality and process control techniques are used and guide the organization Process has positive feedback loop To maintain level Continue improvement and optimization of the process CMM Maturity Level 5: Optimizing

  21. Other Improvement Process Models-1 Plan-Do-Check-Act (Deming) (Improving single process within an organization) • Plan. Develop plan for effective improvement • Do. The development organization carries out the plan • Check. After process termination, observe the effects of the change or test • Act. Study the results and document the lessons learned. Emphasis on • understanding the principles of the process, • predicting product’s quality • suggest further improvement

  22. Other Improvement Process Models-2 Quality Improvement Paradigm (NASA Goddard) (Systematic software development and SE technology validation ) • Characterize project using models and baselines • Set quantifiable improvement goals on basis of relevance to organizing successful project and organization performance improvement • Executethe plan to develop products and provide feedback • Analyze the collected data and information gathered and evaluate the current practices, determine problems, record findings, and make recommendations for improvement • Package the experience in the form of new, updated or refined models. Store them in an experience base so it is available for future projects.

  23. Process Improvement Framework Quagmire

  24. CMMI: CMM Integrated Reduce Cost: • eliminate inconsistencies between processes • Reduce duplication • Provide common terminology and style • Increase clarity

  25. CMMI Principles • Maintain executive support • Strong consistent support is crucial • Pick your targets carefully • Don’t underestimate effort • Leverage best practices • “Steal with pride” • Align process improvement with your business objectives • Improve your business

  26. The Model • Required: Statement of Goals • a desirable end state; succinct • Example: Requirements are managed and inconsistencies with plans and products are identified • Expected: Statement of a Practice • the expected means of achieving a goal • every practice maps to exactly one goal • Example: Develop an understanding with the requirements providers on the meaning of the requirements • Informative: 10 types of information components identified (e.g. purpose, reference, typical work products)

  27. Goals of the capability levels

  28. Level 3 • Defined: For each process area considered, each project in the organization will have a managed process (created under Level 2) that is tailored using standard guidelines.

  29. 4 process categories • Process Management • Project Management • Engineering • Support

  30. 4 process areas • Process Management • Process Definition • Training • Project Management • Engineering • Support

  31. 4 process areas • Process Management • Project Management • Project Planning • Monitoring and Control • Risk Management • Engineering • Support

  32. 4 process areas • Process Management • Project Management • Engineering • Requirements Development and Management • V&V • Product Integration • Support

  33. 4 process areas • Process Management • Project Management • Engineering • Support • Configuration Management • Measurement and Analysis • Decision Analysis and Resolution

  34. Summary: Process improvement • May not be necessary for a given project • May be neglected by some companies • May be necessary for survival of • companies • employees