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Process Improvement

Process Improvement

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Process Improvement

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  1. Process Improvement

  2. It is not necessary to change. Survival is not mandatory. • W. Edwards Deming

  3. Models • Models provide a common set of process requirements that capture the best practices and knowledge in a format that can be used to guide priorities. • CMMI Distilled, Ahern, Clouse, Turner, p5.

  4. Basic Model of Improvement

  5. Emphasis • high-quality software • finite amount of resources • cost-effective manner

  6. Two Observables • Cost: • Quality: • correctness • reliability • robustness • user friendliness • verifiability • maintainability • safety

  7. Why is Process Improvement Difficult? • Software development is: • Software is variable: • We lack models: • Needed to to reason about the process and the product

  8. 5 Stages of CMM for Software • Level 1: Initial • Level 2: Repeatable • Level 3: Defined • Level 4: Managed • Level 5: Optimizing Optimizing Managed Defined Repeatable Initial

  9. Optimizing Major improvements in quality and quantity SEI Capability Maturity Model Process control • Managed • Substantial quality improvements • Comprehensive measurements Process management Defined Achieved foundation for major and continuing progress Process definition Basic management control Repeatable Achieved a stable process with a repeatable level of statistical control • Initial • Ad hoc • No process in place

  10. Characteristics No sound SE management principles in place Ad hoc practices May be successful because of competent manager and team To get to next level Initiate project management CMM Maturity Level 1: Initial

  11. Elements of Basic Project Management • Software Configuration Management • Software Quality Assurance • Software Acquisition Management • Software Project Control • Software Project Planning • Software Requirements Management

  12. Characteristics Basic SE management practices in place Planning and management are based on experience with similar products (repeatable) To get to next level Standardize Processes CMM Maturity Level 2: Repeatable

  13. Process Standardization • Peer Reviews • Project Interface Coordination • Software Product Engineering • methods and technologies • software development process architecture • Integrated Software Management • Organization-level Awareness • Organization Training Program • Organization Process Definition • Organization Process Focus

  14. Characteristics Process for development fully documented Reviews used to achieve software quality Introduce CASE Tools To get to next level Quantitative Management CMM Maturity Level 3: Defined

  15. Quantitative Management • Statistical process management • quantify quality and cost parameters • Process database to maintain process data • Assess relative quality of each product

  16. Characteristics Organization sets quality and productivity goals for each project To get to next level Support automatic gathering of process data Use data to analyze and modify the process Defect Prevention CMM Maturity Level 4: Managed

  17. Characteristics Statistical quality and process control techniques are used and guide the organization Process has positive feedback loop To maintain level Continue improvement and optimization of the process CMM Maturity Level 5: Optimizing

  18. Other Improvement Process Models-1 Plan-Do-Check-Act (Deming) (Improving single process within an organization) • Plan. Develop plan for effective improvement • Do. The development organization carries out the plan • Check. After process termination, observe the effects of the change or test • Act. Study the results and document the lessons learned. Emphasis on

  19. CMMI: CMM Integrated Reduce Cost: • eliminate inconsistencies between processes • Reduce duplication • Provide common terminology and style • Increase clarity

  20. CMMI Principles • Maintain executive support • Pick your targets carefully • Leverage best practices • Align process improvement with your business objectives

  21. The Model • Required: Statement of Goals • a desirable end state; succinct • Expected: Statement of a Practice • the expected means of achieving a goal • every practice maps to exactly one goal • Informative: 10 types of information components identified (e.g. purpose, reference, typical work products)

  22. Goals of the capability levels

  23. Level 3 • Defined: For each process area considered, each project in the organization will have a managed process (created under Level 2) that is tailored using standard guidelines.

  24. 4 process categories • Process Management • Project Management • Engineering • Support

  25. Summary: Process improvement • May not be necessary for a given project • May be neglected by some companies • May be necessary for survival of • companies • employees