Queen Elizabeth I Renaissance Queen
Church of England • Henry and Catherine have a baby – Mary (catholic) • Henry breaks away from church. Starts Church of England • Marries Anne Boleyn and have a baby – Elizabeth (Protestant)
Troubled Beginnings • Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn (Henry’s 2nd wife). • Mother beheaded by Henry VIII when she was 2 years old. • Henry VIII and his 6 wives rhyme: • Divorced, beheaded, died. Divorced, beheaded, survived. • Initially shunned because she reminded Henry of Anne.
Young Adulthood • Henry’s son Edward died before age of 15 • Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) half-sister was named Queen • Restored Catholic Faith in England • Imprisoned for 2 months in London Tower for plotting against the Queen • Released to house arrest for remainder of Mary’s reign.
The Queen is Dead • Mary dies. • 1558 - Coronation of Elizabeth. • Officially made Queen.
Challenge of Religion • All members of the government were Catholic • 1559 - Act of Supremacy passed. • Placed the power church under the authority of the monarchy. • Supreme Governor of the Church of England • Slightly tolerant toward Catholics • Not put to death. • Had to attend church or pay a fine
Protestant Vs. Catholic • Advised to persecute Catholics, but did not • Liked music, candles and crucifixes. • 1570 Papal Bull • Excommunicated – Elizabeth was unchristian and would go to hell. • Catholics in England • Fines increased
The Golden Age • Acquired a clear modern national identity • Looks at itself for inspiration • Church of England • Life is good for much of England. • Rent paid with money instead of labor • Middlemen sold crops in the cities • Modern construction materials • Guns introduced • Little changed for lower class
Married to England • Elizabeth was a smart leader. As a woman, she knew that if she were to marry, she would lose some of the power she enjoyed as queen. • Elizabeth was also aware of her responsibility to England. She knew that marrying the prince of another country could weaken her own nation or cause conflict with other countries.
Tension Mounts Between Spain and England • 1558 – Philip II proposes • Over years relations deteriorated. • Spain tried to dethrone Elizabeth. • English pirates plundering Spanish ships • Spanish treasures from the New World. • Funded anti-Spanish acts in Netherlands
The Rumors of Invasion • 1585 Phillip II starts building his fleet to attack England
Catholic Vast land Unparalleled wealth #1 Power in world Strong Navy Protestant Small country Little wealth Few friends, many enemies Unproven Navy Spain Vs. England
Invasion of the Spanish Armada • Thought to be the greatest fleet in the world. • Plan was to overwhelm England
Approaching the English Channel • English waited day & night. • Sighted Armada • Lit beacons throughout hillsides. • Whole country knew quickly Spanish had arrived • Elizabeth donned armor and white horse to give speech of her life.
Elizabeth’s Speech • "My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes for fear of treachery. Let tyrants fear. I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chief strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and goodwill of my subjects. And therefore I am come amongst you all, as you see at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and for my people, my honor and my blood even in the dust. I know I have the body of a week and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and a king of England too. And think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm!"
Entering the English Channel • 1. 12 July - the Armada left Corunna. 2. 19 July - Armada sighted off Lizard Head • 3. 21 July - First attack by English ships • 4. 24 July - Second English naval attack • 5. 28 July - English sent eight fire ships (ignited with pitch) into the anchored Spanish fleet. The following day, the English were largely victorious in a general engagement with the Spanish ships. In addition, the wind shifted north-west and forced the Spanish vessels towards dangerous shallows. • 6. July 30 to August 12 - Spanish ships withdrew north, pursued by the English, until the Firth of Forth. • 7. August 13 - At a point between the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the Spanish fleet headed westward • 8. Late September/early October - the battered remnants of the Armada return to Spain • Armada under attack immediately. • Stormy weather • Wind and rain against Spanish.
The Battle • English superior naval tactics. • Smaller Ships • Cannons recoiled • Armada retreated when engaged • Most ships shipwrecked
VICTORY!!! • Elizabeth was never more popular • Armada Painting • Globe • England became one of world’s biggest powers • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFojixOc8Hc