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“ Fertilizer Strategies to Conserve Energy on the Farm ”

“ Fertilizer Strategies to Conserve Energy on the Farm ”

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“ Fertilizer Strategies to Conserve Energy on the Farm ”

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  1. Photo courtesy of Heather Hutchinson “Fertilizer Strategies to Conserve Energy on the Farm” Southern Maryland Crops ConferenceWaldorf, MD December 8, 2006 R. David Myers Extension Educator

  2. Why do we fertilize? Photo courtesy of Edwin Remsberg

  3. Fertilizer Options?Cost Analysis for No-Till Corn Manure Sludge Commercial Fertilizer

  4. Nutrient Managementhttp://www.agnr.umd.edu/users/waterqual/themes/nutrient_management/manmh2006.htm

  5. Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Recommendations Based on pre-plant soil tests and yield goal The lower the soil test value, the higher the nutrient recommendation Nitrogen Recommendations • Nitrogen recommendations are based on crop and yield goals.

  6. Agricultural Nutrient Management Program Medium (26-50) Excessive (>100) Low (0-25) Optimum (51-100) Potash Recommendation(lb/acre)as a function of soil fertility level (FIV-K) for corn grain (yield goal - 150 bu/ac) # K2O/A FIV-K

  7. Distribution of Available Nitrogen from Organic & Ammonium Nitrogen Components in a Typical Dairy Manure (assumes incorporation the same day as application) 0.6 lb 2.4 lb 6 lb 3 lb

  8. USNAD, Gambrills MD: No-Tillage System Average Manure Analysis 1989-1997 Available Stockpile Lagoon Nutrient lbs/ton lbs/1000gal N 3.0 0.24 P 7.0 1.34 K 16.0 5.02 Ca 8.0 1.13 Mg 3.0 0.69 S 1.5 0.05 Mn 0.08 0.004 Zn 0.05 0.002 Cu 0.02 0.003

  9. 16 Essential Plant Nutrients Macronutrients Non-Mineral: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Mineral: Primary - Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium Secondary - Calcium, Magnesium, Sulfur Micronutrients Iron, Manganese, Boron, Molybdenum, Copper, Zinc, Chlorine

  10. Table 2. Average Nutrient Values for Virginia Manure Tested 1998-99 Poultry Litter as a Fertilizer and Soil Amendment Authors: G. L. Mullins, Professor, Crop and Soil Environmental Science and E. S. Bendfeldt, Associate Extension Agent, Agricultural and Natural Resources; R.A. Clark, Extension Agent, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Virginia Tech Publication Number 424-034, Posted January 2002 Additional Benefits: Organic Matter and pH

  11. http://www.synagro.com/ Biosolids Average Plant Available Nutrients:lbs/ton N 34.0 P 19.1 K 6.0

  12. How can you be sure sludge is safe? http://www.mde.state.md.us/assets/document/permit/sludge_app.pdf

  13. Sewage Sludge Heavy Metal Tolerance Guidelines

  14. Sewage Sludge Stabilization MD Law Sludge stabilization is the treatment given to sludge and aimed to reduce pathogenic organisms, vector attraction potential, odors and putrescibility of the sludge; acceptable stabilization processes include: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting, heat drying, heat treatment and chemical stabilization. Sewage sludge is also considered as stabilized sludge if one of the following requirements is met: • the mass of volatile solids in the sewage sludge has been reduced by at least 38 per cent; • the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the sewage sludge is ≤ 1.5 milligrams of oxygen per hour per gram of total solids on a dry weight basis, corrected to 200 C; • demonstration through additional anaerobic digestion in a bench-scale unit that volatile solids reduction for anaerobically digested sludge is less than 17 per cent; • demonstration through additional aerobic digestion in a bench-scale unit that volatile solids reduction for aerobically digested sludge is less than 15 per cent; • addition of alkaline materials to raise the pH of the sewage sludge to ≥ 12 and the sludge then remains at pH 12 or higher for two hours and then at pH 11.5 or higher for an additional 22 hours; and • the sewage sludge has been treated in an aerobic composting process for 14 days or longer. During that time, the temperature of the sewage sludge must be higher than 400 C and the average temperature of the sewage sludge must be higher than 450 C.

  15. How can you be sure fertilizer is safe?http://agr.wa.gov/PestFert/Fertilizers/default.htm “Always learning to take nothing for granted!” “A recent study found that Ironite contains up to 3600 mg/kg As and 2900 mg/kg Pb and that solubility testing indicates that the product should be classified as a hazardous waste. On August 15, 2005, the New Jersey Department of Agriculture issued a “stop sale” on Ironite 100, but other Ironite products remain on the market.”

  16. Fertilizers are state regulated http://agr.wa.gov/PestFert/Fertilizers/ProductDatabase.htm

  17. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget • Commercial Fertilizer • Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu • Unit lbs/Acre Price/lb $ Total/Acre • Nitrogen 150 .36 51.00 • Phosphorus 30 .34 10.20 • Potassium 120 .26 31.20 • *Fertilizer Total92.00 • Fertilizer Application Costs: • 10/10/10 in planter box (300 lb/acre) 5.00 • Bulk Spread KCL (150 lb/acre) 8.00 • UAN at Planting Herbicide (15 gal/acre) 1.00 • UAN Split Drop-Nozzled (25 gal/acre) 15.00 • Fertilizer Application Costs 29.00 • Fertilizer Grand Total $121.00/Acre • * Includes Trucking

  18. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget Dairy/Beef Manure Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu Unit lbs/Acre Total $/Acre Manure (on-farm) 15 tons/acre 0.00 Nitrogen 45 (150) 105 lbs @ .36/lb 37.80 Phosphorus 105 (30) 0.00 Potassium 240 (120) 0.00 Manure & Fertilizer Costs 37.80 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs: Manure cleanout 1.00/ton 15.00 Manure spreading 15 ton/acre 22.00 UAN at Planting Herbicide (15 gal/acre) 1.00 UAN Split Drop-Nozzled (20 gal/acre) 15.00 Manure Application Costs 53.00 Manure Fertilization Grand Total $90.80/Acre (*) Amount required

  19. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget Dairy/Beef Manure - P Based Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu Unit lbs/Acre Total $/Acre Manure (on-farm) 5 tons/acre 0.00 Nitrogen 15 (150) 135 lbs @ .36/lb 48.60 Phosphorus 35 (30) 0.00 Potassium 80 (120) 40lbs @ .26/lb 10.40 Manure & Fertilizer Costs 59.00 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs: Manure cleanout 1.00/ton 5.00 Manure spreading 6 ton/acre 15.00 KCL in planter box (65 lb/acre) 5.00 UAN at Planting Herbicide (19 gal/acre) 1.00 UAN Split Drop-Nozzled (25 gal/acre) 15.00 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs 41.00 Manure/Fertilization Grand Total $100.00/Acre (*) Amount required

  20. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget Broiler Litter - N Based Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu Unit lbs/Acre Total $/Acre Broiler Litter 3.5 tons/A@ 5.00/ton*17.50 *($25/ton - $20/ton MDA cost share) Nitrogen 151 (150) 0.00 Phosphorus 203 (30) 0.00 Potassium 151 (120) 0.00 Manure & Fertilizer Costs 17.50 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs: Litter spreading 3 ton/acre 12.00 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs 12.00 Manure/Fertilization Grand Total $29.50/Acre (*) Amount required

  21. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget Broiler Litter - P Based Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu Unit lbs/Acre Total $/Acre Broiler Litter 1 ton/A@ 5.00/ton*5.00 *($25/ton - $20/ton MDA cost share) Nitrogen 43 (150) 107 lbs @ .36/lb 38.52 Phosphorus 58 (30) 0.00 Potassium 43 (120) 77 lbs @ .26/lb20.02 Manure & Fertilizer Costs 63.54 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs: Litter spreading 1 ton/acre 10.00 Bulk Spread KCL (128.3 lb/acre) 8.00 UAN at Planting Herbicide (15 gal/acre) 1.00 UAN Split Drop-Nozzled (25.6 gal/acre) 15.00 Manure/Fertilizer Application Costs 34.00 Manure/Fertilization Grand Total $97.54/Acre (*) Amount required

  22. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget Biosolids - N Based Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu Unit lbs/Acre Total $/Acre Biosolids 4.5 tons/acre applied by Synagro0.00 Nitrogen 153 (150) 0.00 Phosphorus 86 (30) 0.00 Potassium 27 (120) 93 lbs @ .26/lb24.18 Biosolids & Fertilizer Costs 24.18 Biosolids/Fertilizer Application Costs: Bulk Spread KCL (160 lb/acre) 8.00 Biosolids/Fertilizer Application Costs 8.00 Biosolids/Fertilization Grand Total $32.18/Acre (*) Amount required

  23. No-Till Corn Fertilization Budget Biosolids - P Based Scenario: Soil test results: K-medium, P-optimum; Yield Goal - 150 bu Unit lbs/Acre Total $/Acre Biosolids 2 tons/acre applied by Synagro0.00 Nitrogen 68 (150) 82 lbs @ .36/lb 29.52 Phosphorus 38 (30) 0.00 Potassium 12 (120) 108 lbs @ .26/lb28.08 Biosolids & Fertilizer Costs 57.60 Biosolids/Fertilizer Application Costs: Bulk Spread KCL (180 lb/acre) 8.00 UAN at Planting Herbicide (15.00 gal/acre) 1.00 UAN Split Drop-Nozzled (21.0 gal/acre) 15.00 Biosolids/Fertilizer Application Costs 24.00 Biosolids/Fertilization Grand Total $81.60/Acre (*) Amount required

  24. “Any Questions?” Southern Maryland Crops ConferenceWaldorf, MD December 8, 2006 R. David Myers Extension Educator