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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae An Evolutionary History of Plants

  2. Life on Earth: The First Forests Complete the information on the next two slides (also shown on the handout provided in class) as you view the film.

  3. From the film, list the order of development of the members of the plant kingdom. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  4. Circle the group(s) that exhibit each of the properties listed below. • Require water for swimming gametesmosses club mosses ferns cycads conifers angiosperms • Possess a vascular systemmosses club mosses ferns cycads conifers angiosperms • Produce spores mosses club mosses ferns cycads conifers angiosperms • Produce seeds mosses club mosses ferns cycads conifers angiosperms

  5. Algae are the Ancestors of Plants Liverworts Nonvascular plants (bryophytes) Land plants Origin of land plants (about 475 mya) Ancestral green alga Hornworts 1 Mosses Lycophytes (club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts) Seedless vascular plants Origin of vascular plants (about 425 mya) Vascular plants 2 Pterophytes (ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns) Gymnosperms Origin of seed plants (about 360 mya) Seed plants 3 Angiosperms 500 450 400 350 300 0 Millions of years ago (mya)

  6. Characteristics of Plants • Eukaryotic • Multicellular • Autotrophic: photosynthetic • Sexual and asexual reproduction • Cell wall made of cellulose • Usually non-motile except for gametes • Adapted to life on land

  7. Adaptations to Life on Land • Roots and root-like structures • Conduction vessels • Structural support • Water-proof covering • Pores for gas and water exchange • Mechanisms for dispersal of reproductive products

  8. Non-vascular Plants Seed Plants Vascular Plants Evolutionary Treeof Major Plant Groups Liver-worts Gymno-sperms Angio-sperms Mosses Ferns Flowers & Fruits appear Shows increasing adaptations for land dwelling True vascular tissueand lignin appear Seeds andpollen appear AncestralAlgae

  9. Haploid Diploid Plant Life Cycle: Alternation of Generations Gametesform by mitosis Gametophyten Spores formby meiosis n Sperm Gametes meet& fuse to formzygote n Egg Spores n n n n 2n 2n Zygote SporeMotherCell 2n Sporophyte2n Embryo Evolutionary trend: reduction of gametophyte

  10. Sporophyte (stalk) Female Gametophyte (leafy) Bryophytes: Mosses • No fluid-conducting vascular system • Enclosed reproductive structures • Require moist environments

  11. Vascular Plants • Specialized groups of conducting cells organized into vessels • Functions of vessels • conduct water and nutrients • provide support to plant body with lignin • Largest group of plants

  12. Archegonia produce eggs Antheridia produce sperm Vascular Plants: Ferns • Seedless vascular plants • Tall leafy Sporophyte • Gametophyte requires moist environment Gametophyte

  13. MatureSporophyte Fern Life Cycle meiosis SporeCase mitosis,differentiation,growth mitosis,differentiation,growth YoungSporophyte Egg growth mitosis,differentiation,growth MatureGametophyte Zygote Diploid2n fusionto formzygote Haploid1n Sperm

  14. Vascular Plants: Gymnosperms • Seed-producing vascular plants • Pollinated by wind • Conifers adapted to cold, dry climate • cones to protect seeds • evergreen • waterproof needle-like leaves • sap does not freeze

  15. Vascular Plants: Gymnosperms Coastal Redwood (Tallest Trees) Giant Sequoia (Largest Living Thing)

  16. Two UncommonGymnosperms Cycad These plants have separate sexes, ie. male and female plants. Gingko

  17. Vascular Plants: Angiosperms • Seed and fruit-producing vascular plants • Broad, waterproof leaves • Modified leaves = Flower = reproductive structure • Many have animal pollinators; some use wind • Greatly reduced gametophyte (pollen grain and embryo sac with egg) • Largest number of species (250,000)

  18. Applying Your Knowledge • Mosses • Ferns • Gymnosperms • Angiosperms • Which group of plants • Encloses seeds within fruit? • Does not have a vascular system? • Protects seeds within a cone? • Has a vascular system but does not produce seeds?