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  1. Marine Birds Marine Vertebrates: Lecture 6

  2. Amniote relationships

  3. Birds vs. other reptiles • Feathered wings (airfoils) • Honeycombed bones (hollow spaces) • Reduction of organs • Females have one ovary • Absence of teeth • Endothermic • Higher metabolic rates needed for flight • Respiration: efficient, one-way flow • Circulation: four-chambered heart • Acute visual systems • Coordination of flight

  4. What defines a marine bird (or “seabird”)?

  5. Osmotic balance: seabirds • Acquiring water • Diet • How would a diet of Osteichthyes promote osmotic balance? • What about an invertebrate diet? • Drink • Marine birds do not require fresh water • May drink if available • Actively avoid drinking seawater • Mechanisms for water expulsion? • Penguin regurgitate example • Metabolically-produced water (e- transport)

  6. Osmotic balance: seabirds • Water loss • Skin • Sweat glands • Exhalation • Able to control? • Excretion of water and ions • Kidneys • Long/densely-packed “Loops of Henle” • Intestines (no role) • Salt glands (supraorbital, NaCl, 2X seawater)

  7. Thermoregulation • How does the thermal climate of seabirds compare to terrestrial birds? • Tropical • Polar • Fat and feathers • Special oils • BMR

  8. Sensory systems Vision Odor

  9. Seabird Orders • Sphenisciformes • Penguins! • Pelicaniformes • Pelicans, frigatebirds, gannets, boobies, cormorants • Procellariformes • Albatrosses, petrels, storm-petrels, fulmars, shearwaters • Charadriiformes • Gulls, skuas, jaegers, auks, guillemots, puffins

  10. Focus: Sphenisciformes • Anatomical adaptations for diving • Bones • Hindlimbs • Forelimbs • Air sacs • Feathers • Carotid arteries • Size and diving

  11. Penguins: Distribution 1 African Little Fjordland Snares Island Erect Crested Rockhopper Yellow-eyed Galapagos Humboldt Magellanic Gentoo Rockhopper Macaroni

  12. Distribution 2: Antarctic penguins King* Macaroni* Gentoo Rockhopper Royal *Broadly distributed Gentoo Chinstrap Adelie Emperor

  13. Focus: Adelie Penguins • Feeding: • Interrelationship of ice, phytoplantkon, krill and penguins • Breeding • Adelies and global climate

  14. Focus: Emperor Penguins • Feeding • Breeding • Comparison with Adelies • Decline and global climate

  15. Order Procellariiformes • Overview • The tubenose… • Focus: Albatrosses • General • Feeding • Foraging • Flight Black-browed albatross Photo: K. Haberman

  16. Order Procellariiformes • Focus: storm petrels • Feeding • Nesting Wilson’s storm petrel Photo: K. Haberman

  17. Order Procellariiformes • Focus: Southern Giant Petrel (defense) Southern giant petrel Photo: K. Haberman

  18. Order Procellariiformes • Focus: prions (feeding) Fairy prion Photo: Hadoram Shirihai

  19. Order Pelecaniformes • Focus: Brown Pelican

  20. Order Pelecaniformes • Focus: Cormorants Blue-eyed shag Photos: K. Haberman

  21. Order Charadriiformes • Focus: Gulls Kelp gulls Photo: K Haberman

  22. Order Charadriiformes • Focus: South Polar Skua South Polar Skua Korean Antarctic program

  23. Order Charadriiformes • Focus: Puffins Common puffin Photo: K Haberman

  24. Order Charadriiformes • Focus: Oregon coastal seabirds Pigeon guillemots Photo: K Haberman Common murre Photo: Nick Kontonicolas