Proper Penalty Enforcement Presented by: Mike Sears and Tom Mellor Bloomington-Normal Officials Association
It is Everyone’s Duty. • Official who throws flag (or anyone who sees a flag) should signal timeout when ball is dead. • Get EVERYONE’S attention with short tweets of the whistle. • Somebody should hold the dead ball spot! • Calling official should communicate with the referee and tell him EVERTHING. • With multiple flags, both officials should get together before going to referee. • Make sure flag is AT spot of foul. • Referee gives preliminary signal. • Umpire gets captains for Referee. • Referee presents options to captain (do not rely upon R as the “all-knowing”).
It is Everyone’s Duty. • Umpire listens to (and verifies) Referee’s options and walks off yardage if penalty is accepted (suggest holding ball after enforcement until assured ball is at correct yard line). • Linesman should be at enforcement spot ahead of Umpire. • If Umpire and Linesman are not in same place, figure out why. • Line Judge holds spot of enforcement (basic spot or spot of foul). • Back Judge does whatever else needs to be done. (Retrieving flag, holding spot of foul, relaying information to a sideline, etc.) • Blows and goes
What Every Official Needs to Know • Yardage assessed for every foul. (2004 Rulebook pg.83) • Loss of down or automatic first down aspect of every foul. • “4” Automatic 1st down fouls • “4” loss of down fouls • Signals for all fouls so you know the distance penalty for the foul. • The type of play (running or loose ball play). • Definition of Spots. • The “all-but-one” principle. • The special penalty enforcements (i.e. exceptions) • When to start the clock (snap or ready-for-play).
4 Automatic First Down Fouls • Roughing Snapper • Roughing Passer • Roughing Kicker/Place Kick Holder • Defensive Pass Interference.
4 Loss of Down Fouls • Illegal forward pass (Pass from beyond neutral zone or forward pass after change of possession and intentional grounding) • Illegal forward handing • Offensive pass interference • Illegal touching
To Enforce Penalty Properly Know: • Team that fouled (Offense or Defense) • The basic spot • The spot of the foul.
Spot of Foul • The place where the foul occurs. The penalty marker is used to mark this spot. • This is the spot of enforcement for offensive fouls that occur behind the basic spot. • For defensive fouls, this spot is insignificant.
Basic Spot • 2-40-1: The basic spot is a point of reference for penalty enforcement. • It is determined by the action that occurs during the down.
How to Determine Basic Spot • Basic spot is previous spot for a loose-ball play • Basic spot is the end of the run for a running play. • Basic spot is the previous spot for fouls that occur simultaneously with the snap. • Basic spot is the succeeding spot for dead ball fouls, unsportsmanlike fouls (no matter when they occur), a non-player foul, and when the results of the play is a touchback. • Basic spot is the end of the kick for a PSK foul.
Types of Plays • Loose ball play is action that occurs: • During a free kick or scrimmage kick (unless post-scrimmage kick enforcement is used). • A LEGAL forward pass. • A backward pass (including snap), an illegal kick, or fumble by team A that originates from in or behind the neutral zone. • All runs the precede any of those action listed above • Note: Ball must become loose from in or behind the neutral zone for a play to be considered a loose-ball play. • No need to bag a loose ball behind the line of scrimmage. • Running plays are anything that is not covered as a loose-ball play (or by Post Scrimmage Kick enforcement)
Previous Spot • 2-40-7: The previous spot is where the ball was last snapped or free-kicked. • This is the basic spot for a loose-ball play.
Succeeding Spot • This is the spot where the ball would next be snapped had a foul not occurred. • This is the enforcement spot for dead ball fouls, all unsportsmanlike conduct fouls, and non-player fouls. • Includes fouls that occur before the snap like False Start and Encroachment
End of the Run • 2-40-9: The spot where a run ends is where a runner loses player possession or where the ball becomes dead in his possession. • This is the basic spot for a running play. • This is why we bag fumbles that occur beyond the line of scrimmage.
Post Scrimmage Kick Spot • This is the spot where a scrimmage kick ends. • When does a kick end? • This is the basic spot for post scrimmage kick (PSK) fouls
Enforcement Spot • The spot from which a penalty will be enforced. This will be EITHER the basic spot or the spot of the foul (unless covered by special enforcement).
All But One Principle • Fouls are enforced from the basic spot. • The only exception is a foul by the offense that occurs behind the basic spot. These are enforced from the spot of the foul. • PSK fouls behind the basic spot are enforced from the spot of the foul.
Post Scrimmage Kick Fouls • All conditions must be met. • Foul is by R (AND) • Foul occurs on R’s side of the expanded neutral zone (AND) • Foul occurs prior to end of the kick (AND) • The kick crosses the neutral zone (AND). • R would be the team to next put the ball into play absent of the foul (AND) • The play does not involve a successful field goal or kick try.
Special Enforcements • Free kick out of bounds • Kick catching interference. • Unfair Acts. • Foul by opponent of the scoring team during successful field goal, try, or touchdown. • Roughing the passer on a completed pass.
Dead Ball Fouls • Fouls that occur after a down has ended and before the ball is next snapped or free-kicked. • Once the ball is dead, any foul committed by either team is a dead ball foul. • Live ball – A foul that occurs during the down (that is not unsportsmanlike conduct). • Multiple – two or more fouls by the SAME team (other the unsportsmanlike or non-player fouls). Offended team may choose ONE of the penalties to enforce. • Non-player or unsportsmanlike – a NON-CONTACT foul while the ball is dead or DURING the down which is not illegal participation and does not influence the play in progress.
Double Fouls • One or more live ball fouls committed by each team at such a time that the penalties offset. • If both teams commit fouls, it is a double foul if: • There is no change of possession during the down (excludes PSK fouls). • There IS a change of possession, and the team in final possession fouled PRIOR to gaining final possession (excludes PSK fouls). Team did not get ball with “clean hands”. • There IS a change of possession during the down, and the team in final possession accepts the penalty for its opponent’s foul.
Fouls by opponents that are not double fouls • It is NOT a double-foul if both teams foul (AND) there is a change of possession (AND) the team in final possession fouls after gaining final possession. The team in final possession may keep the ball but they must decline their opponents foul and have their foul enforced. (Often referred to as “Clean Hands”) • Unsportsmanlike fouls, non-player fouls, and dead ball fouls are not paired with live-ball fouls to create double fouls. Do not “offset” these. • Fouls during a try are not paired with a dead-ball foul to create double or multiple-fouls.
Dead ball and Unsportsmanlike Conduct Fouls • Always enforced from succeeding spot. • Double and Multiple dead ball, unsporting, or non-player fouls are enforced in the order of occurrence. • Down counts. • First down awarded if line-to-gain is reached before ball became dead. Penalty is then enforced and then chains are set (No 1st and 25).
Personal Foul or Unsportsmanlike? • Personal fouls are contact fouls. Two players fighting each other are charged with personal fouls, not unsportsmanlike fouls. Both players are STILL ejected but it isn’t classified as UC. • Unsportsmanlike fouls are NON-CONTACT fouls. Two unsportsmanlike fouls and a player is ejected. Players CAN be ejected after the first unsportsmanlike.
Goofy Plays • Roughing passer enforced from end of last run • Multiple change of possessions – more than 2 fumbles on a play • Multiple and double fouls on the same play • Others???
Questions? • Questions about Penalty Enforcement?