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CONDENSATION

CONDENSATION

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CONDENSATION

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  1. CONDENSATION Chapter 17 Test 4 material End

  2. CLOUDS ARE THE VISIBLE PRODUCTS OF CONDENSATION AND DEPOSITION WITHIN THE ATMOSPHERE. • WE NEED A NUCLEI AS A SURFACE FOR CONDENSATION TO TAKE PLACE

  3. CONDENSATION NUCLEI • FOREST FIRES • VOLCANOES • WIND EROSION • SEA WAVES • POLLEN • CHIMNEY SMOKE

  4. CLOUDS • ARE VISIBLE EVIDENCE OF MOISTURE WITHIN THE ATMOSPHERE • CLASSIFIED BY THEIR APPEARANCE AND THEIR ALTITUDE ABOVE THE SURFACE

  5. BY APPEARANCE • CIRRUS OR CIRRO = FEATHERY • STRATUS OR STRATO = LAYERED • CUMULUS OR CUMULO = PUFFY • NIMBO OR NIMBUS = RAIN • FRACTO OR FRACTUS = BROKEN

  6. HIGH CLOUDS • FOUND AT ALTITUDES ABOVE 20,000 FEET • TEMPERATURES ARE SO LOW THAT CLOUDS ARE COMPOSED SOLELY OF ICE CRYSTALS • PREFIX CIRRO DENOTES HIGH CLOUD

  7. TYPES OF HIGH CLOUDS • CIRRUS - ALSO CALLED MARE’S TAILS BECAUSE THEY LOOK LIKE STRANDS OF HORSE HAIR

  8. HIGH CLOUD • CIRROSTRATUS - ARE NEARLY TRANSPARENT SO THAT SUN OR MOON SHINES THROUGH • OFTEN SEE HALO AROUND THEM WHICH CAN BE PREDICTOR OF RAIN BECAUSE THESE ARE CLOUDS SEEN PRECEDING A WARM FRONT

  9. CIRROSTATUS

  10. HIGH CLOUD • CIRROCUMULUS - CONSIST OF SMALL WHITE PUFFS ARRANGED IN A WAVELIKE PATTERN • CALLED A MACKERAL SKY BECAUSE IT LOOKS SIMILAR TO FISH SCALES

  11. MIDDLE CLOUDS • HAVE A BASE BETWEEN 6,500 TO 20,000 FEET ABOVE THE SURFACE • COMPOSED OF ICE CRYSTALS OR SUPERCOOLED WATER DROPLETS OR BOTH • PREFIX ALTO IS USED TO DENOTE MIDDLE CLOUD

  12. MIDDLE CLOUDS • ALTO STRATUS - UNIFORMLY GRAY OR WHITE AND USUALLY SO THICK THAT SUN IS DIMLY VISIBLE (SAID TO LOOK LIKE FROSTED GLASS) • CAN DISTINGUISH THESE FROM CIRRO STRATUS (SHADOW ON GROUND) BECAUSE THERE WOULD BE NO SHADOW

  13. MIDDLE CLOUDS • ALTOCUMULUS - CONSIST OF PATCHES THAT FORM LINES OR WAVES • HAVE LARGER SIZE AND SHARPER FEATURES THAN CIRROCUMULUS

  14. LOW CLOUDS • HAVE BASES FROM THE EARTH SURFACE (FOG) TO 6,500 FEET ABOVE SURFACE • COMPOSED OF WATER DROPLETS • NO PREFIX DESIGNATION

  15. LOW CLOUDS • STRATOCUMULUS - CONSIST OF LARGE PUFFS ARRANGED IN LAYERS • NIMBOSTRATUS - DARK GRAY CLOUDS THAT GO FROM HORIZON TO HORIZON AND CONTAIN PRECIPITATION

  16. LOW CLOUDS • STRATUS - OCCUR AS A UNIFORM GRAY LAYER THAT STRECHES FROM HORIZON TO HORIZON • MAY GET DRIZZLE FROM THESE CLOUDS

  17. FOGS • ADVECTION - WARM MOIST AIR OVER A WATER SURFACE BLOWS OVER A COOLER LAND SURFACE (ALSO KNOWN AS COASTAL FOG) • RADIATION - DUE TO NIGHT-TIME RADIATIONAL COOLING. FOUND IN LOW-LYING AREAS AND BURNS OFF BY AM

  18. Advection fog

  19. Radiation fog

  20. FOGS • FRONTAL - DUE TO UPLIFTING OF AIR ALONG THE PASSAGE OF FRONTS. CAN BE WIDESPREAD AND LONG LASTING. • UPSLOPE - OCCURS AS AIR MOVES UP A SLOPE. SMOKEY MOUNTAINS

  21. Upslope fog

  22. FOGS • STEAM - ALSO KNOWN AS EVAPORATION FOG. FOUND OVER WATERBODIES IN FALL OR EARLY WINTER AS WATER TEMPERATURE IS HIGHER THAN SURFACE AIR TEMPERATURES

  23. Steam fog

  24. CLOUDS OF VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT • CUMULUS - OCCURS AS AIR RISES VERTICALLY TO ABOUT 3000-6500 FEET. • RESEMBLE PUFFS OR COTTON BALLS • CAN GO THROUGH STAGES OF VERTICAL DEVELOPMENT AS UNSTABLE AIR RISES • CUMULONIMBUS

  25. UNUSUAL CLOUDS • ALTOCUMULUS LENTICULARIS - ALSO KNOWN AS LENTICULAR CLOUD AND FOUND NEAR MOUNTAIN RANGES. • BANNER - DRAPED OVER THE TOP OF MOUNTAIN LIKE A FLAG • CONTRAIL

  26. TYPES OF PRECIPITATION • VIRGA • MIST • DRIZZLE - STRATUS • RAIN - NIMBOSTRATUS OR CUMULONIMBUS • FREEZING RAIN (GLAZE)

  27. VIRGA

  28. SLEET • SNOW • HAIL

  29. HOW DOES IT RAIN? • COLLISION-COALESCENCE • BERGERON PROCESS

  30. Rain

  31. SNOW • HEXAGONAL • NEEDLES • DENDRITES • PLATES • COLUMNS • SIZE DEPENDS UPON TEMPERATURE • TOO COLD OR TOO WARM? • 10 INCHES SNOW= 1 INCH RAIN

  32. HAIL • RANGE IN SIZE FROM A PEA TO AS LARGE AS A GRAPEFRUIT • 2 POUNDS AND AS LARGE AS A SOFTBALL • SOMETIMES USE SNOWPLOWS TO CLEAR HAIL FROM HIGHWAYS (18 INCHES OF HAIL) IN GREAT PLAINS

  33. GIANT HAIL STONE