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Ch.10

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Ch.10

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  1. Ch.10 The Union in Peril

  2. Bell Ringer • What major issues have we discussed so far this semester? • Why do you think manifest destiny will lead to further issues between the North and the South?

  3. Conflict over Status of Territories 3 Conflicting Positions 1) Free-Soil Movement- Western territories should exclude slavery mainly to keep blacks from competing in this territory. “Slave Power Conspiracy” 2) Southern Position- Felt restricting slavery was a violation of their constitutional rights. 3) Popular Sovereignty- Lewis Cass proposed a compromise Let the people who settle the territory vote . Squatter or popular sovereignty.

  4. Election of 1848 • Lewis Cass Democrat • Zachary Taylor Whig • Martin Van Buren Free- Soil Party • Taylor wins

  5. Compromise of 1850 • 100,000 settlers came into California • Needed to establish law and order there • President Taylor supported the idea of California and New Mexico being slave free. • South unhappy with California being free-state.

  6. Henry ClayCompromise: 1850 • Admit California as a free state • Divide other territory into Utah and New Mexico and let the people who settle decide. • Ban the slave trade in the District of Columbia but allow them to hold slaves. • Adopt a new Fugitive Slave Law and enforce it.

  7. Senate Debate over Compromise Daniel Webster & John C. Calhoun Debate • Webster argued for compromise to save the union • Calhoun argued against compromise and wanted south to be given rights to the territory. • President Taylor was against compromise but he dies. • President Millard Fillmore takes over and supports compromise. *Keeps peace for a short time*

  8. Agitation Over Slavery • Fugitive Slave Law- Forced the North to send back escaped “fugitive slaves”. • Many Northern abolitionists opposed this law and the south were angered. • Personal Liberty Laws- Forbade the imprisonment of runaway slaves and gave them a trial by jury.

  9. Underground Railroad • Not very well organized. • Few white abolitionists actually involved. • Harriet Tubman well known for helping. • A secret system of sending slaves to the North or Canada.

  10. Literature on Slavery • Uncle Tom’s Cabin- Against • Impending Crisis of the South- Against • Sociology of the South- For Slavery *Literature and Laws further divide the North and the South.*

  11. National Parties Crisis • Democrats and Whigs losing influence. • Election of 1852 • Whigs get beat by Democrats and show an almost end to the Whigs. Franklin Pierce wins.

  12. Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) • Democrats in full power of White House and Congress. • Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed a plan to build a railroad going west. Douglas needed southern support to do it. • Makes a bill to please the south. • Allow Nebraska and Kansas to determine the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty.

  13. Kansas-Nebraska Act cont… • Congress and House pass the bill and President Pierce signed it. *Renewed sectional controversy* A new political party is created Republicans- Free-Soilers and antislavery Whigs and Democrats made the new party. -Started by Horace Greeley Other Political Parties • Know-Nothing Party- Nativism

  14. Election of 1856 • Republicans John C. Fremont -No expansion of slavery, free homesteads, and protective tariffs. Know-Nothings Party- Millard Fillmore Democrats James Buchanan Democrats win but the Republicans did well. Foreshadows the emergence of the Republican party.

  15. “Bleeding Kansas” • AntislaveryMidwest farmers and slaveholders from Missouri both set up homesteads in Kansas. • Northerner Abolitionists and Free-Soilers set up New England Emigrant Aid Company to help bring more antislavery settlers there. John Brown and sons- “Pottawatomie Massacre” -Kill Proslavery men and it leads to… • Terrible fighting erupted.

  16. “Bleeding Kansas” • Proslavery try to establish legislation in Lecompton Kansas • Antislavery try to establish legislation in Topeka Kansas. • John Brown and sons kill a ton of proslavery men. • President Pierce didn’t do anything. Congress even start to fight. • Charles Sumner (MASS) got hit in the head by a Preston Brooks (SC) with a cane.

  17. Lecompton Constitution • Buchanan had to decide whether to accept this constitution or not. • President Buchanan asked Congress to accept this Constitution to make Kansas a slave state. • Congress did not. (Republicans were very against it)

  18. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Supreme Court Case • Dred Scott- former slave from Missouri had been in Wisconsin for 2 years and then went back to Missouri. • Scott argued and sued to be free in Missouri. • Chief Justice Roger Taney(Southern Democrat) ruled on the case.

  19. Majority Decided • Dred Scott had no right to sue in federal court as an African • Congress could not exclude slavery from any federal territory. • Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. *Huge shock to the North and a BIG victory for the South.*

  20. Lincoln-Douglas Debates • 1858- Republican Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Stephen Douglas debate for the Senate position of Illinois. • Lincoln became well known for delivering a famous speech “house-divided” “This government, cannot endure permanently half slavery and half free.” Freeport Doctrine- How could Douglas reconcile Dred Scott and Popular Sovereignty. Douglas wins but loses many of his followers.

  21. Lincoln “A house divided against itself can not stand.” I believe this Government can not endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved- I do not expect the house to fall- but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push forward till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new, North as well as South.”

  22. Road to Secession • Republicans do well in other states besides Illinois. • John Brown was supposedly given money from the Northern Radicals. • Brown goes to Harpers Ferry Virginia to violently free slaves and cause an uprising. • Robert E. Lee captures Brown and they tried and hanged them in Virginia.

  23. Election of 1860 • Democrats become split • Elect two candidates Stephen Douglas and John Breckinridge. • Republicans elect Abraham Lincoln • John Bell Constitutional Union Party Results • Lincoln wins every Northern free state and the electoral majority, but only gains 39.8% of the popular vote.

  24. Secession of the Deep South • Republicans had no control over Congress or the Supreme Court, yet the South decided to call for disunion. • December 1860 special convention in South Carolina voted to secede. • Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas followed. • Confederate States of America created 1861. (Elect Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president)

  25. Crittenden Compromise • President Buchanan refused to unify the secession of the southern states. • Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky proposed a constitutional amendment to Guarantee the right to hold slaves in all territories south of 36 30’. • Lincoln he would not accept this compromise.