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Ch 10

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Ch 10

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  1. Ch 10 Land Use Controls Page 47

  2. Controversy over Land Use • Usable land is scarce • The public is viewing land as • A resource • Not just a commodity Page 47

  3. Land as a commodity • Land is scarce • Land is expensive • Land is bought & sold for a profit • The principles of supply & demand determine land use Page 47

  4. Land as a Resource • Land belongs to the public (the people). • Land is constant • Land should be preserved • Land should be protected by the government Page 47

  5. Land planning resulted from: • Urbanization • Increased number of cities • Increased number of people • Increased population • Increased proximity of neighbors • Scarcity of land • Minimize the physical exploitation of the land • Minimize the exploitation of mineral rights Page 47

  6. Private market land use control • Principle of highest and best use. • The legal use which will produce the largest net profit attributable to the land at a certain location. • Highest & Best use has a strong influence on land usage. Page 47

  7. Private market land use control • Private deed restrictions • Property owners attempt to • protect land value • contractually prohibiting surrounding land from being used in a harmful manner. • Tried to • freeze highest & best use • promote uniformity

  8. Public land use control • Zoning ordinances: division of land into designed use districts • Residential • Commerical • Industrial • Rural Page 48

  9. Zoning • Zoning • Government uses eminent domain and police powers to regulate private land WITHOUT payment of just compensation. • Eminent domain • Allows government to regulate private land WITH payment of just compensation. • Police power • Designed to protect property values • Allows government to regulate private land WITH (eminent domain) or WITHOUT (zoning) payment or compensation. Page 48

  10. Planning • Zoning evolved into government planning • Planning is designed to protect land values • Planning attempts to promote community objectives: Social, Political, Biological (Physical), or Environmental and Economic (PEEPS) • Planning covers entire regions • Government acquires private land for public use for payment of just compensation. Page 48

  11. P E E P S Forces that change Value P Political Forces Government: zoning, fiscal policy, taxes People: education Economic Forces Consumer: income, employment, credit Government: low-income housing E E Environmental ForcesPeople: health, sports, recreation Government: environmental protection P Physical Forces (biological) Natural: land, climate, resources, ocean Man-Made: buildings, roads/freeway, utilities S Social Forces Area: neighborhood, living standards People: family size, lifestyle, attitudes

  12. State land-use planning controls • Subdivision map act Subdivided lands act • Environmental reports (EIR) • Land use zoning • Physical geological hazard zoning (earthquake) & similar specialization (flood) Page 48

  13. How much should government protect people ? • Tsunami protection • Cannot develop coastal lands • Earthquake protection • Cannot develop along San Andreas fault • Volcanic protection • Cannot develop Mt. Shasta or Lassen areas • Flood protection • Cannot develop along Colorado River, Ocean, Russian River, Sacramento River. . .

  14. Cost legislative land-use control • Loss of local control • Increased time delays • Increased development costs • Higher real estate prices Page 48

  15. Land use changes: • Controversial • Differing groups • Monitor trends • Influences future real estate market activity