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Ch. 10 PowerPoint Presentation

Ch. 10

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Ch. 10

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    1. Ch. 10 Sex and Gender

    2. Basic Concepts: sex = biological categories (e.g., female and male). gender = positions and personal traits that society attaches to each sex.

    3. Societal Expectations of Each Sex (Gender) What are the factors that contribute to negative body images and eating disorders? Are there different expectations for the sexes?

    4. Physical Differences Discuss size differences between women and men: Discuss life expectancy differences between women and men: WHY the differences in life expectancy??

    5. Patriarchy and Sexism: Two Gendered Phenomena that are Universal but Variable Patriarchy [rule of the fathers] = A form of social organization in which males dominate females. Matriarchy [rule of the mothers] = A form of social organization in which females dominate males.

    6. Sexism Sexism also exists in many societies. Sexism = prejudice and discrimination against females. Institutional sexism = when people are treated unequally in the social structures of society based on their sex. Sexism is built into social institutions such as???

    7. Gender Stratification Gender (sex) stratification = the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between women and men.

    8. Gender Stratification in Historical & Contemporary Perspective Your author asks, How do tasks in a society come to be defined as mens work or womens work? (Kendall, 2005). 3 factors: The type of subsistence base (the means by which a society gains the basic necessities of life) The supply of & demand for labor The extent to which womens child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work

    9. Gender Stratification in Historical & Contemporary Perspective Hunting & Gathering Societies Horticultural & Pastoral Societies Agrarian Societies Industrial Societies Postindustrial Societies

    10. Gender Stratification Overall, women of all races make about 78 cents for every dollar made by men.

    11. Perspectives on Gender Stratification Functionalists: Assert that traditional gender roles benefit society (e.g., women fulfilling expressive tasks and men fulfilling instrumental tasks).

    12. Perspectives on Gender Stratififcation The Human Capital Model: Asserts that individuals vary in how much human capital they bring to the labor market (human capital = education, job experience). Peoples earnings reflect a combination of their personal choices and the current supply & demand of certain kinds of jobs. According to this view, what happens to womens human capital when they leave the workforce?

    13. Perspectives on Gender Stratification Conflict perspectives: Assert that gender stratification results from patriarchy which exists in order to keep men in powerful positions and women in subordinate ones. How would Mark (& Engels) view traditional marriage?

    14. Consequences of Patriarchy Does patriarchy influence our everyday lives and social opportunities (in business, at home, socially, politically)? ($, power??)

    15. Socialization into Gender gender roles (sex roles) = attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex. Consider the first question people ask when a baby is born....

    16. Agents of (Gender) Socialization: Family - socializes before birth. How so? following birth? How so? Religion - Women are more involved in religious organizations and pray more often, but men occupy positions of power more often. Yet, in some denominations women are in power positions, e.g., some Protestant & Jewish organizations. Interestingly, the early womens movement was spurred largely by women who were quite religious

    17. Agents of (Gender) Socialization peer group (people of same age). Through play and games. Girls are taught cooperation, communication, and other interpersonal skills. Boys teach each other competitiveness, scoring, and aggression through games.

    18. Agents of (Gender) Socialization Mass media (radio, advertising, films, television, books, etc.) Until the 1970s women hardly appeared in shows. What are Voiceovers? Voiceovers are mostly male. WHY? Schools - research shows that males and females focus on subject areas based on their sex (physical sciences are encouraged to boys whereas the social sciences are encouraged to girls).

    19. Feminism! feminism = the advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.