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Early Greece

Early Greece. Geography & Climate of Greece. While the earliest civilizations developed on fertile river valleys, a very different set of geographic conditions influenced the rise of Greece. Greece is a small country located on a peninsula in Southern Europe with 2,000 islands.

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Early Greece

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  1. Early Greece

  2. Geography & Climate of Greece While the earliest civilizations developed on fertile river valleys, a very different set of geographic conditions influenced the rise of Greece. Greece is a small country located on a peninsulain Southern Europe with 2,000 islands. Peninsula - area of land surrounded by water on three sides (like Florida). Greece is surrounded by the Ionian sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Aegean Sea.

  3. Geography & Climate of Greece Mountains divide the peninsula into isolated valleys that separate the Greek city-states. The Sea was very important to Ancient Greeks – most people used the sea to make a living. Most Greeks were fisherman and sea-traders who exported olive oil and wine.

  4. Geography & Climate of Greece Rugged mountains covered about ¾ of ancient Greece. Mountain ran from Northwest to Southeast along the Balkan Peninsula. Mountains divided the land into a number of different regions. Instead of a single government, Greeks developed small, independent communities.

  5. Geography & Climate of Greece The rugged terrain made transportation between regions difficult. Most of the land was rocky, and only small areas were suitable for farming. Only ¼ of the land area was fertile.

  6. Geography & Climate of Greece The Greek climate was another important environment influence on the development of Greek civilization. Greece had a varied climate. Temperatures range from 48 degrees in the winter to 80 in the summer. Moderate temperatures supported outdoor life. People spent much of their leisure time at outdoor public events. They met often to discuss public issues, exchange news, and take an active part in civic life.

  7. Early People of the Aegean The earliest civilization tosettle in Greece were the Minoans. The Minoans were successful sea-traders who lived on the Island of Crete. The rulers of this trading empire built the palace of Knossos with elaborate frescoes (water color paintings) on the walls. The Minoans suddenly vanished around 1400 B.C. – probably a volcano or earthquake. Around 1400 B.C., the Mycenaeans conquered mainland Greece and established a sea-trading empire. The Mycenaeans lived in separate city-states with a warrior-King.

  8. The Trojan War In 1250 B.C., the Mycenaeans fought the Trojan War against the economic rival Troy (in Turkey). According to legend, the war began when the Trojan Prince, Paris, kidnapped Helen, the wife of a Greek King. The Greeks supposedly used a wooden horse to sneak into the City of Troy. The war lasted 10 years, until the Greeks seized Troy and burned the city to the ground.

  9. The Trojan War Most of what we know about the Trojan War comes from two great epic poems writtenby Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Iliad ~ story of the Trojan War with a talking horse. The Odyssey ~ tells the story of Odysseus on his way home after the Trojan War to his wife.

  10. Governing the City States As the Greek world expanded after 750 B.C., the Greeks developed a new version of a city state called a polis and new forms of government. Polis - a city and its surrounding countryside. Each polis had an acropolis, or high city, with a large marble temple.

  11. Governing the City States New Forms of Government #1 Monarchy The earliest form of government in Greece was monarchy. A monarch is a king or queen who has supreme power. A monarchy is a government that is ruled by a king or queen. Most Greek city-states started out as monarchies but changed over time to other forms of government.

  12. Governing the City States #2 Oligarchy Sparta and other city-states developed a political system called oligarchy. Oligarchy means “rule by the few”. In an oligarchy, people rule because of wealth or land ownership.

  13. Governing the City States #3 Tyranny Poor people were not part of government in monarchies or oligarchies. Poor people came to resent this, and began rebellions. A wealthy person who wanted to seize power made use of that anger. He would ask poor people to support him in becoming a leader. Such leaders were called tyrants. In Greece, a tyrant was someone who took power in an illegal way.

  14. Governing the City States #4 Direct Democracy Athens and some other city-states began to develop a democratic form of government, in which citizens had a more active role in the government. Direct Democracy is a government in which the citizens work together to decide on the laws, vote in elections, and sit on juries

  15. Governing the City States #5 Indirect Democracy Indirect Democracy is a type of government in which the citizens make political decisions through elected representatives. In an Indirect Democracy, people elect representatives to make laws. The United States is an example of an indirect or representative democracy.

  16. Athens and Sparta Athens: Birth Place of Democracy Athenian government began as a monarchy and evolved into an aristocracy. However, people were not happy and Athens moved towards a democracy. The first direct democracy was developed in Athens.

  17. Athens & Sparta In 507 B.C., Cleisthenes created the Council of 500 a legislature (law making body) made up of any male citizen over 30 years old. 50 Members from each of the 10 tribes of Athens. Served for 1 year. This allowed citizens to play a role in law-making. However, women and slaves were not considered citizens and could not vote and had no rights. Athenians valued government, philosophy, art, and education. In Athens, boys attended school, but girls did not.

  18. Athens & Sparta Two very different city-states came to dominate Greece: Athens and Sparta.

  19. Sparta: The Military Ideal Unlike Athens, Sparta developed a powerful military city-state ruled by two kings and a council of elders. The government of Sparta was an oligarchy ruled by a few elite people. Spartans had MANY slaves, called Helots, who outnumbered the rulers. Therefore, Sparta set up a brutal system of strict control over the Helots.

  20. Sparta: The Military Ideal A Spartan’s life revolved around the military and discipline. Every newborn was “inspected” and sickly children were abandoned to die. At the age of 7, boys began very difficult training for the military and continued to serve in the military until they were 60 years old! Spartan women could inherit property, but had few other rights. Their main duty was to produce strong warriors.

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