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NOTABLE EVENTS AND DISASTERS OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS OF EARTHQUAKES PowerPoint Presentation
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NOTABLE EVENTS AND DISASTERS OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS OF EARTHQUAKES

NOTABLE EVENTS AND DISASTERS OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS OF EARTHQUAKES

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NOTABLE EVENTS AND DISASTERS OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS OF EARTHQUAKES

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  1. NOTABLE EVENTS AND DISASTERS OF 2014 HIGHLIGHTS OF EARTHQUAKES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 

  2. EARTHQUAKES are small to awesome manifestations of energy released in the form of seismic waves and tsunamis as tectonic plates of the Earth’s crust slowly converge, diverge, or slide by each other

  3. 2014: EARTHQUAKES ARE A GLOBAL NATURAL HAZARD CONTINUUM • FLOODS • SEVERE WINDSTORMS • EARTHQUAKES • DROUGHTS • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS • ETC.

  4. 2014: THE TECTONIC PLATES THAT HAVE BEEN MOVING FOR 200 MILLION YEARS CONTINUED TO MOVE

  5. 2014: EARTHQUAKES CONTINUED TO OCCUR AT PLATE BOUNDARIES

  6. TSUNAMI FAULT RUPTURE DAMAGE/ LOSS TECTONIC DEFORMATION DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS FOUNDATION FAILURE EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE/ LOSS SITE AMPLIFICATION DAMAGE/ LOSS LIQUEFACTION DAMAGE/ LOSS LANDSLIDES DAMAGE/ LOSS DAMAGE/LOSS AFTERSHOCKS DAMAGE/ LOSS SEICHE DAMAGE/ LOSS GROUND SHAKING

  7. NOTE: GROUND SHAKING BECOMES A POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENT WHEN IT INTERACTS WITH A COMMUNITY’S VULNERABLE AND UNPROTECTED BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE

  8. CAUSES OF DAMAGE INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN EARTHQUAKES FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES “DISASTER LABORATORIES” LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

  9. 2014: SUB-OCEAN EARTHQUAKES CONTINUED TO OCCUR; SOME LARGE ENOUGH TO GENERATE TSUNAMIS

  10. NOTE: TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP BECOMES A POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENT WHEN IT INTERACTS WITH AN UN-WARNED, UN-EVACUATED AND UN-PREPARED COASTAL COMMUNITY

  11. CAUSES OF DAMAGE HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS TSUNAMIS FLOODING “DISASTER LABORATORIES” INADEQUATE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EVACUATION PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI

  12. 2014: EARTHQUAKE/TSUNAMI DISASTER OF THE YEAR THE DISASTER OF THE YEAR OCCURRED IN IQUIQUE, CHILE WHERE THE NAZCA PLATE IS SUBDUCTING BENEATH CHILE-PERU

  13. IQUIQUE EARTHQUAKE: M8.2 at 8: 46 pm ON APRIL 1, 2014

  14. IQUIQUE, CHILE EARTHQUAKE (April 1, 2014)

  15. IQUIQUE

  16. Moment Magnitude 8.2 • On April 1, the mega-thrust Iquique earthquake struck off the coast of Chile approximately 95 km (59 mi) northwest of Iquique. • The main shock was followed by a large number of moderate to very large aftershocks, including a M7.7 event.

  17. IQUIQUE EARTHQUAKE: DAMAGE

  18. IQUIQUE EARTHQUAKE: DAMAGE TO OLD BUILDINGS

  19. IQUIQUE EARTHQUAKE: FIRE

  20. A TSUNAMI WAVE OF 2.1 M WAS GENERATD BY THE MEGATHRUST EARTHQUAKE

  21. IQUIQUE: DAMAGE FROM TSUNAMI

  22. IQUIQUE: DAMAGE FROM TSUNAMI

  23. IQUIQUE: NOT THE FIRST EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE REMEMBERING MAY 9, 1877

  24. THE HISTORICAL RECORD • The 1877 Iquique earthquake occurred on May 9 with a magnitude estimated at 8.5-9.0 on the surface wave magnitude scale. • The earthquake shaking caused significant damage over most of the coastal parts of the Tarapaca and Antofagasta regions.

  25. THE HISTORICAL RECORD • The earthquake triggered a devastating 10 m (33 ft) tsunami wave along about 500 km (310 mi) of coast, from Arica in the north to Meiillones in the south.

  26. M6.1 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES NORTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE 4:30 pm, JULY 22, 2013

  27. LOCATION MAP

  28. About 12,000 homes collapsed in Ludian county

  29. TYPICAL DAMAGE IN ZHAOTONG, THE COUNTY SEAT

  30. VULNERABLE BRICK HOUSES • The homes that collapsed in Ludian (a population of about 429,000), were mostly old brick houses having little resistance to strong ground shaking.

  31. At least 398 people died and more than 1,400 were injured

  32. A M6.0 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES NAPA, CA(USA’S WINE COUNTRY) 3:20 AM, AUGUST 24, 2014

  33. SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA The Bay Area is prone to moderate- to large- magnitude earthquakes because it straddles the boundary between two major tectonic plates — the North American and Pacific plates.

  34. NAPA: SURROUNDED BY SAN ANDREAS, HAYWARD, AND OTHER FAULT ZONES

  35. The M6.0 Napa earthquake was the strongest in the San Francisco Bay area since the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta quake, BUT it only had about 1/30th of Loma Prieta’s energy release

  36. SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS • Loss of power, gas, and water for 70,000 people. • Injuries, but no deaths

  37. SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS • Local damage to buildings and houses, infrastructure, and interior contents of homes and stores. • $ Millions from extensive loss of product (wine)

  38. BEYOND 2014: Communities throughout the world know why it is urgent for their stakeholders to continue working on becoming EARTHQUAKE- and TSUNAMI- DISASTER RESILIENT

  39. Each community knows that it is only a matter of time until the inevitable earthquake occurs that can expose its physical and social vulnerabilities

  40. PREPAREDNESS • PROTECTION • EM RESPONSE • RECOSTRUCTION AND RECOVERY EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK BOOKS OF KNOWLEDGE • MONITORING • HAZARD MAPS • INVENTORY • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION DATA BASES AND INFORMATION YOUR COMMUNITY HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS

  41. SEISMICITY TECTONIC SETTING & FAULTS EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MODEL

  42. FAULTS, EARTHQUAKES, AND RECURRENCE INTERVALS • A LONG FAULT IS NEEDED TO GENERATE A LARGE-MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKE. • LARGE-MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES HAVE RECURRENCE INTERVALS OF 100 YEARS OR MORE; SEVERAL TIMES LONGER THAN THOSE FOR SMALL- TO MODERATE- MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKES

  43. THE USA’S NOTABLE PLATE BOUNDARY FAULT ZONE

  44. THE USA’S OTHER NOTABLE PLATE BOUNDARY FAULT ZONE • THE JUAN DE FUCA PLATE • SUBDUCTING BENEATH WASHINGTON AND OREGON; • POTENTIAL FOR M9.0

  45. FAULTS: COCOS PLATE SUBDUCTION ZONE; MEXICO

  46. MOTAGUA FAULT, GUATEMALA

  47. CHILE’S NOTABLE PLATE BOUNDARY FAULT ZONE • THE NAZCA PLATE • SUBDUCTING BENEATH CHILE AND PERU • HAS GENERATED M8-9.5 QUAKES

  48. FAULTS: DEAD SEA RIFT ZONE

  49. NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT:TURKEY

  50. LONGMAN SHAN FAULT: CHINA