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  1. BELL RINGER Explain, in terms of particles and energy, the different states of matter.

  2. Matter & Energy

  3. MATTER & ENERGY anything that has mass and volume MATTER - ENERGY - the ability to do work

  4. NO Mixture Pure Substance Can it be physically separated? Can it be chemically decomposed? Is the composition uniform? YES Yes Yes No No Matter Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture Compound Element

  5. Examples • Graphite - • Pepper - • Sugar(sucrose) - • Paint - • Milk - element heterogeneous compound mixture Homogeneous mixture

  6. BELL RINGER YES, you have to write down the chart • Classify each type of mixture. • Determine the volume of Fe fillings used to produce mixture 2.

  7. ½ day Notes

  8. Ne N2 SO3 Homogeneous Mixture

  9. Physical vs. Chemical • Physical Change - • changes the form of a substance without changing its identity • properties remain the same • Examples • dissolving, changes of phase

  10. Temperature (ºC) Time (sec) BELL RINGER 1.What does C6H12O6 (aq) mean? 2. Looking at the graph on the right, characterize each variable as independent or dependent.

  11. Physical vs. Chemical • Chemical Change - • changes the identity of a substance • products have different properties • ID by color change, bubbles, heat • Examples • rust, burning a log, ice pack

  12. Physical vs. Chemical • Chemical Changes - Mythbusters Mentos Rocket

  13. NO Mixture Pure Substance Can it be physically separated? Can it be chemically decomposed? Is the composition uniform? YES Yes Yes No No Matter Compound Element Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture

  14. 1. Suspension Mixtures Made of two or more separate compounds In chemistry, this is usually a solid and a liquid A. Types of mixtures Heterogeneous Largest particles Over 1 µm If left alone, particles will settle Can also filter the mixture to remove particles 2. Colloid Heterogeneous Smaller particles, may be invisible Between 0.001 - 1 µm Mixture is not transparent Particles do not settle. Cannot be filtered

  15. 3. Solution Homogeneous Smallest particles Under 0.001 µm Invisible - solution appears transparent Particles cannot be filtered Must distill the solution to remove solids B. Solutions 1. Parts Solute - Smaller of the two materials – usually solid Larger quantity of the two – usually water or liquid Solvent - (aq) Solutions are labeled CaCl2(aq) Calcium chloride dissolved in water 2. Solubility How much solute can go into a solvent

  16. Tyndall Effect • Used to identify a solution, light is reflected by the dissolved particles

  17. Tyndall Effect

  18. NO Mixture Pure Substance Can it be physically separated? Can it be chemically decomposed? Is the composition uniform? YES Yes Yes No No Matter Compound Element Homogeneous Mixture Heterogeneous Mixture suspensions solutions colloids

  19. BELL RINGER Which of the following phase changes are exothermic? Just right down the correct choice! • CO2(s) + heat  CO2(g) • NH3(g)  NH3(l) + heat • Cu(s)+ heat Cu(l) • Hg(l)+ heat Hg(g)

  20. STATES OF MATTER • Solids • Liquids • Gases • Plasma


  22. Atom Movement What happens to an atom when the kinetic energy changes? Click Here Vibrational Rotational Translational - particles are constantly vibrating - about an axis, they flip over end to end - particles move from place to place

  23. STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS - • very low KE - particles can vibrate but not move • fixed shape & volume • Do Not conform to the container shape • Vibrate only

  24. STATES OF MATTER • Crystalline solid – arranged in a specific pattern such as diamonds, salt, or ice • Amorphous solid – no molecular order as found in charcoal, plastics and glass

  25. STATES OF MATTER LIQUIDS - • low KE - particles can move around but are still close together • variable shape but packed closely together • fixed volume • (incompressible) • Vibrate & Rotate

  26. STATES OF MATTER GASES - • high KE - particles can separate and move throughout the container • Variable shape & volume • Fluid and Compressible • Vibrate, Rotate, Translate

  27. STATES OF MATTER PLASMA - • Very high KE - particles collide with enough energy to break into charged particles (+/-) • variable shape & volume • Stars, fluorescent light bulbs

  28. STATES OF MATTER Animation Very good display of the differences in states of matter

  29. HEAT vs. Temperature Temperature - the measure of an object’s average kinetic energy - the more an object moves, the higher the temperature Heat - flow of energy from a higher temperature object to a lower temperature object

  30. Think Using the following graph, draw a line, representing the temperature of a substance as it is heated constantly starting as a solid all the way through to a gas. Temperature (KE) Time

  31. Heating Curve Temperature (KE)  KE PHASE   KE PHASE   KE Time

  32. BELL RINGER The temperature of a piece of copper with a mass of 95.4 g increases from 25.0°C to 48.0°C when the metal absorbs 849 J of heat. What is the specific heat of copper? q = mcΔT 849J = (23.0 K) (c) (95.4 g) c = 0.388 J/g•K

  33. Heating Curve Temperature (KE) q=mc T q=mHv q=mc T q=mHf m = mass c = specific heat [4.18] q = heat loss/gain q=mc T Time

  34. Heat Energy Problems How much heat energy, in joules, is absorbed by 100. grams of water when it is heated from 20.0ºC to 30.0 ºC? Get the formula from Reference Tables q = mcΔT q = 100.g (4.18J/g•ºC) 10.0ºC q = 4180 J

  35. Heat Energy Problems How much heat energy is absorbed when 35.0g of ice melts to form liquid water at the same temperature? Get the formula from Reference Tables q = mHf q = (35.0 g) (334J/g) q = 11690 J q = 11700 J

  36. Heat Energy Problems How much heat is absorbed when 70.00 g of water is completely vaporized at its boiling point? Get the formula from Reference Tables q = mHv q = (70.0 g) (2260J/g) q = 158200 J

  37. Heat Energy Problems If it takes 273.3 J of energy to condense 19.2 g of a substance, what is the heat of vaporization of a substance Get the formula from Reference Tables q = mHv 273.3J = (19.2 g) (x) Hv = 14.2 J/g

  38. Cooling Curve Lab

  39. BELL RINGER If it takes 22.0 kj of energy to change 43.2 g of a substance to a liquid, what is its heat of fusion? 509 Joules/gram

  40. Heat of Fusion Lab Remember: The energy to melt the ice only comes from the warm water!!!!!!!!!

  41. BELL RINGER A What Just sketch the graph! B C Lauric Acid is starting as a liquid D Which line segment represents a phase change only? What is the melting point of lauric acid? At which point do the particles of lauric acid have the highest kinetic energy? What phase change occurs during this 10-minute graph?

  42. Separation Techniques Since the components of a mixture are different substances, with at least some physical properties that are unique to each substance, mixtures can be separated by physical means into their components by techniques such as … Filtration Distillation Decanting Chromatography And many others

  43. Mixture of solid and liquid Stirring rod Funnel Filter paper traps solid Filtrate (liquid component of the mixture) Filtration Is the process of removing ‘straining’ a solid, precipitate, from a liquid using a porous paper

  44. Filtration • For separation of substances in different phases • Ex – Air filters, coffee filters, fuel filters • Decanting • Immiscible liquids – separation by differing densities  use a separatory funnel

  45. Filtration

  46. decanting • Pouring a liquid off of a solid

  47. decanting • carefully pouring a solution from a container, leaving the precipitate in the bottom of the container. • Precipitate– solid formed in a solution during a chemical reaction

  48. chromatography • Separation of a mixture based upon bonding preferences or size of molecules • Tie-dye • Pen ink • Chlorophyll • Paternity testing